TODAY July 6 – Sunni’s History Notes

Holidays and observances
  • Umbrella Cover Day
  • Take Your Webmaster to Lunch Day
  • Birthday of the 14th Dalai Lama (Tibetan diaspora)
  • Constitution Day (Cayman Islands)
  • Day of the Capital, established in 2008. (Kazakhstan)
  • Independence Day, celebrates the independence of the Comoros from France in 1975.
  • Independence Day/Republic Day, celebrates the independence of Malawi from United Kingdom in 1964.
  • Jan Hus Day (Czech Republic)
  • Statehood Day (Lithuania)
  • Teachers’ Day (Peru)
  • The earliest date for summer solstice in Julian calendar system, which corresponds to June 23:  The first night of Ivan Kupala Day (Poland, Russia, Belarus and Ukraine)
  • The first day of Ludi Apollinares (Roman Empire)
 371 BC – Death of Cleombrotus I, Spartan king. The Battle of Leuctra, where Epaminondas defeated Cleombrotus I, takes place640 – Battle of Heliopolis: The Muslim Arab army under ‘Amr ibn al-‘As defeat the Byzantine forces near Heliopolis (Egypt).1189 – Death of Henry II of England (b. 1133) King of England (1154-89), at 561189 – Richard I “the Lionheart” accedes to the English throne.1249 – Death of Alexander II of Scotland (b. 1198)1348 – Pope Clement VI issues a papal bull protecting the Jews accused of having caused the Black Death.1415 – Death of Jan Hus, Czech priest, philosopher, and reformer (b. 1369) burned for heresy by the Church at Constance, Germany1476 – Death of Regiomontanus, German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer (b. 1436)1483 – Richard III is crowned King of England.1484 – Portuguese sea captain Diogo Cão finds the mouth of the Congo River.1491 – Opening ceremony of Daitokuji’s Shinju at subtemple1495 – First Italian War: Battle of Fornovo – Charles VIII defeats the Holy League.1535 – Death of Thomas More, English lawyer and politician, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (b. 1478), philosopher (Utopia), executed for treason against King Henry VIII of England at 571553 – Death of Edward VI of England (b. 1537) Tudor, King of England (1547-53), at 151557 – King Philip II of Spain, consort of Queen Mary I of England, sets out from Dover to war with France, which eventually resulted in the loss of the City of Calais, the last English possession on the continent, and Mary I never seeing her husband again.1560 – The Treaty of Edinburgh is signed by Scotland and England.1580 – Birth of Johann Stobäus, German lute player and composer (d. 1646)1609 – Majesteitsbrief: Emperor Rudolf II grants Bohemia freedom of religion1614 – ?ejtun and the surrounding villages suffer a raid from Ottoman forces. This was the last unsuccessful attempt by the Ottomans to conquer the island of Malta.1621 – Dutch Governor-General John Pieterszoon Coen takes Banda-islands, 15,000 die1630 – Thirty Years’ War: Four thousand Swedish troops under Gustavus Adolphus land in Pomerania, Germany.1634 – Johan van Walbeecks ships bypass St-Anna Bay, Curacao1652 – Fire on Dutch Dam, Amsterdam’s city hall burns1669 – LaSalle leaves Montreal to explore Ohio River1699 – Captain William Kidd, the pirate, was captured in Boston, MA, and deported back to England.1701 – Death of William Kidd, English / U.S. buccaneer, hanged1747 – Birth of John Paul Jones, Scottish-American captain (d. 1792) naval hero, “I have not yet begun to fight”1751 – Pope Benedict XIV suppresses the Patriarchate of Aquileia and establishes from its territory the Archdiocese of Udine and Gorizia.1762 – Death of Peter III Feodorovich, tsar of Russia (1761-62), murdered at 341766 – Birth of Alexander Wilson, Scottish-American poet, ornithologist, and illustrator (d. 1813)1775 – Congress issues “Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking up Arms,” listing grievances but denying intent to be independent1776 – Declaration of Independence announced on front page of “Pennsylvania Evening Gazette”1777 – American Revolutionary War: Siege of Fort Ticonderoga: After a bombardment by British artillery under General John Burgoyne, American forces retreat from Fort Ticonderoga, New York.1779 – Battle of Grenada: The French defeat British naval forces during the American Revolutionary War.1782 – Birth of Luis [Philippus] Brion, Curacao commander of Colombian fleet1785 – The dollar is unanimously chosen as the monetary unit for the United States. Congress resolves U.S. currency named “dollar” and adopts decimal coinage1789 – Birth of María Isabella of Spain (d. 1846)1796 – Birth of Nicholas I of Russia (d. 1855) Nicholas I Pavlovitch, tsar of Russia, 1825-551798 – U.S. law makes aliens “liable to be apprehended, restrained, … and removed as alien enemies”1809 – Death of Antoine Charles Louis de Lasalle, French general (b. 1775)1809 – The second day of the Battle of Wagram; France defeats the Austrian army in the largest battle to date of the Napoleonic Wars.1816 – Death of Philipp Meissner, composer, at 671840 – Birth of José María Velasco Gómez, Mexican painter (d. 1912)1848 – Mexican-American War ended with the Treaty of Guadaloupe Hidalgo1853 – National Black convention meets, Rochester New York1853 – William Wells Brown publishes “Clotel,” First novel by black American1854 – Death of Georg Ohm, German physicist and mathematician (b. 1789)1854 – In Jackson, Michigan, the first convention of the United States Republican Party is held.1858 – Lyman Blake patented the shoe manufacturing machine.1862 – Skirmish at Devall’s Bluff Arkansas (106 casualties)1863 – Death of Ernst Merck, German businessman and politician (d. 1811)1868 – Birth of Princess Victoria of the United Kingdom (d. 1935)1875 – Birth of Roger Babson, born in Gloucester, Massachusetts, entrepreneur, business theorist, attended MIT, predicted Wall Street Crash of 1929, published Babson’s Reports, oldest investment newsletter in U.S.1884 – Birth of Harold Stirling Vanderbilt, American businessman and sailor (d. 1970) New York, America Cup, 1930,34,37, invented contract bridge1885 – Louis Pasteur successfully tested his anti-rabies vaccine. Joseph Meister, a boy who was bitten by a rabid dog, the child used in the test, later became the director of the Pasteur Institute.1886 – Horlick’s of Wisconsin offers First malted milk to public1887 – David Kal?kaua, monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii, is forced at gunpoint by Americans to sign the Bayonet Constitution giving Americans more power in Hawaii while stripping Hawaiian citizens of their rights.1892 – Three thousand eight hundred striking steelworkers engage in a day-long battle with Pinkerton agents during the Homestead Strike, leaving ten dead and dozens wounded.1893 – British King George V marries princess Victoria of Teck (Queen Mary)1893 – The small town of Pomeroy, Iowa, is nearly destroyed by a tornado that killed 71 people and injured 200.1894 – Cleveland sends 2,000 troops to Chicago to suppress Pullman strike1896 – Birth of Thomas W. McKnew, president, National Geographic Society1903 – George Wyman arrives in New York City by motorcycle 51 days out of SF1905 – Fingerprints were exchanged for the first time between officials in Europe and the U.S. The person in question was John Walker.1907 – Birth of Frida Kahlo, Mexican painter (d. 1954)
Frida Kahlo, Self-Portrait, 1940. See discussi...
Frida Kahlo, Self-Portrait, 1940. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
1907 – Birth of George Stanley, Canadian soldier, historian, and author, designed the flag of Canada (d. 2002)1908 – Robert Peary’s expedition sails from New York City for north pole1912 – 5th Olympic games in Stockholm opens1915 – Birth of Laverne Andrews, born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, singer, Andrews Sisters1916 – Birth of Unica Zurn, born in Berlin, Germany, author, painter, wrote anagram poems and held automatic drawing exhibitions1917 – World War I: Arabian troops led by T. E. Lawrence (“Lawrence of Arabia”) and Auda ibu Tayi capture Aqaba from the Ottoman Empire during the Arab Revolt.1918 – Birth of Sebastian Cabot, English-Canadian actor (d. 1977) London, actor, Mr French-Family Affair, Time Machine1919 – A British dirigible landed in New York at Roosevelt Field. It completed the first crossing of the Atlantic Ocean by an airship.1919 – Birth of Dorothy Kirsten, opera singer/Alzheimer disease activist1921 – Birth of Nancy Reagan, American actress, 42nd First Lady of the United States1922 – Birth of William Schallert, born in Los Angeles, California, actor, Patty Duke Show, Get Smart1922 – Dutch auto/airplane manufacturer Trompenburg declares bankruptcy1923 – The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was formed.1924 – First photo sent experimentally across Atlantic by radio, U.S. – England1925 – Birth of Bill Haley, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (Bill Haley & His Comets) (d. 1981)1925 – Birth of Merv Griffin, American actor, singer, and producer, created Wheel of Fortune and Jeopardy! (d. 2007)1926 – Birth of Nicky Hilton, First husband of Elizabeth Taylor1927 – Birth of Janet Leigh, American actress and singer (d. 2004) born in Merced, California, actress, Psycho
Screenshot of Janet Leigh from the trailer for...
Screenshot of Janet Leigh from the trailer for the film Touch of Evil (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
1927 – Birth of Pat Paulsen, American comedian and actor (d. 1997) Wash, comedian/president candidate, Smothers Bros Show1928 – “The Lights of New York” was previewed in New York’s Strand Theatre. It was the first all-talking movie.1928 – Worlds largest hailstone 1 lbs (17′) falls in Potter Nebraska1929 – Birth of Gerd Zacher, born in Meppen, Germany, composer, organist, writer, contemporary compositions, written in graphic or verbal scores, include extended techniques, known as interpreter of works by Johann Sebastian Bach1931 – Birth of Della Reese, American actress and singer1932 – Cubs shortstop Bill Jurges is shot twice in Chicago hotel room by a spurned girlfriend, Violet Popovich Valli1932 – The postage rate for first class mail in the U.S. went from 2-cents to 3-cents.1933 – The first Major League Baseball All-Star Game is played in Chicago’s Comiskey Park. The American League defeated the National League 4–2.1935 – Birth of 14th Dalai Lama, Tibetan spiritual leader1936 – 114 degrees F (46 degrees C), Moorhead, Minnesota (state record)1936 – 121 degrees F (49 degrees C), Steele, North Dakota (state record)1936 – A major breach of the Manchester Bolton & Bury Canal in England sends millions of gallons of water cascading 200 feet (61 m) into the River Irwell.1937 – Birth of Gene Chandler, American singer-songwriter and producer1937 – Birth of Ned Beatty, American actor, Lexington, Kentucky, actor, Deliverance, Repossed, Network1939 – Birth of Jet Harris, English bass player (The Shadows, The Jeff Beck Group, and The Vipers Skiffle Group) (d. 2011)1939 – Holocaust: the last remaining Jewish enterprises in Germany are closed.1940 – Story Bridge, a major landmark in Brisbane, as well as Australia’s longest cantilever bridge is formally opened.1941 – New York Yankees unveil a monument to Lou Gehrig in centerfield1942 – Anne Frank and her family go into hiding in the “Secret Annexe” above her father’s office in an Amsterdam warehouse.1944 – Birth of Byron Berline, born in Caldwell, Kansas, musician, fiddle, mandolin player, famous for contemporary bluegrass music, played with The Flying Burrito Brothers, worked with Manassas, founded Oklahoma International Bluegrass Festival1944 – Fire broke out in the main tent of the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus in Hartford, Conn., killing 169 people.1944 – Jackie Robinson refuses to move to the back of a bus, leading to a court martial.1944 – U.S. General Patton lands in France1945 – Birth of Burt Ward, Gervis, born in Los Angeles, California, actor, Robin-Batman1945 – Birth of Rik Elswit, rocker, Dr. Hook and Medicine Show-In the Right Place1945 – Nicaragua became the first nation to formally accept the United Nations Charter.1945 – U.S. President Truman signed an order creating the Medal of Freedom.1946 – Birth of George W. Bush, American lieutenant and politician, 43rd President of the United States
George W. Bush
George W. Bush
1946 – Birth of Sylvester Stallone, American actor, director, and screenwriter1947 – “Candid Microphone” began airing on ABC radio.1947 – The AK-47 goes into production in the Soviet Union.1948 – Frieda Hennok became the first woman to serve as the commissioner of the Federal Communications Commission.1949 – Birth of Shelley Hack, born in Greenwich, Connecticut, actress, Tiffany Welles-Charlie’s Angel1949 – Freak heat wave sent central coast of Portugal to 158 degrees F for 2 minutes1950 – Birth of Phyllis Hyman, born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Phyllis Linda Hyman, soul singer, songwriter, actress, jazz, soul, rhythm and blues, disco genres, first solo Top Ten Hit, ‘Can’t We Fall In Love Again’, received Tony-nomination for Broadway musical, Sophisticated Ladies1952 – Birth of Grant Goodeve, Middlebury CT, actor, Northern Exposure1954 – Elvis Presley records his First hit, “That’s All Right”1957 – Althea Gibson became the first African-American tennis player to win a Wimbledon singles title, defeating fellow American Darlene Hard 6-3, 6-2.1957 – Harry S. Truman Library forms in Independence, Missouri1957 – John Lennon (16) and Paul McCartney (15) meet for First time as Lennon’s rock group The Quarry Men perform at a church dinner1958 – Birth of Jennifer Saunders, born in Sleaford, England, actress, Absolutely Fabulous1959 – Birth of John Keeble, London, rock drummer, Spandau Ballet-True1959 – WENH TV channel 11 in Durham, New Hampshire (PBS) begins broadcasting1960 – Birth of Jozef/Josef Pribilinec, born in Czechoslovakia, speed walker, world record 10K1960 – Dr. Barbara Moore completes a 3,207 mile walk from Los Angeles to New York City1962 – As a part of Operation Plowshare, the Sedan nuclear test takes place.1962 – Death of William Faulkner, American author, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1897)1964 – The Beatles’ first film, “A Hard Day’s Night,” premiered in London.
A Hard Day's Night poster
A Hard Day’s Night poster (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
1965 – Birth of Glenn Scarpelli, born in Staten Island, New York, actor, Alex-One Day At a Time, Fantasy1965 – The Jefferson Airplane was formed in San Francisco, CA.1966 – Birth of Brian Posehn, American comedian, actor, and screenwriter1966 – Death of Anne Nagel, of cancer at 501966 – Malawi became a republic within the Commonwealth with Dr. Hastings Banda as its first president.1967 – Nigerian Civil War: Nigerian forces invade Biafra, beginning the war. The war lasted two-and-a-half years. About 600,000 people died.1969 – Birth of John Langan, American author.1969 – Birth of Michael Grant, vocalist, Musical Youth1969 – Filming begins on “Ned Kelly” starring Mick Jagger1969 – Frente Obrero y Liberacion (FOL) forms in Curacao1970 – Birth of Inspectah Deck, American rapper, producer, and actor (Wu-Tang Clan)1970 – California passes First “no fault” divorce law1971 – Death of Louis “Satchmo” Armstrong, American singer and trumpet player (b. 1901) jazz musician (Hello Dolly), at 711971 – Karen and Richard Carpenter hosted “Make Your Own Kind of Music” on NBC-TV.1971 – White House Plumbers unit formed to plug news leaks1973 – Queen released their first single, “Keep Yourself Alive.”1974 – Birth of Glenn R. Krisch, American author.1975 – Birth of 50 Cent, American rapper, producer, and actor (G-Unit)1976 – Soyuz 21 carries 2 cosmonauts to Salyut 5 space station1978 – Eddie Mahoney changed his name to Eddie Money.1979 – Death of Van McCoy, American singer-songwriter and producer (b. 1940) (Hey Mr. DJ, Hustle), at 351979 – IRA-bomb explodes in British consulate in Antwerp1981 – Former President of Argentina Isabel Peron was freed after five years of house arrest by a federal court.1981 – The Dupont Company announced an agreement to purchase Conoco, Inc. (Continental Oil Co.) for $7 billion. At the time it was the largest merger in corporate history.1982 – Birth of Tay Zonday, American actor and singer1983 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that retirement plans could not pay women smaller monthly payments solely because of their gender.1984 – The Jacksons began their Victory Tour in Kansas City, MO.1985 – Martina Navratilova won her 4th consecutive Wimbledon singles title.1985 – The submarine Nautilus arrived in Groton, Connecticut. The vessel had been towed from Mare Island Naval Shipyard.1987 – U.S.S.R. performs nuclear test1988 – Several popular beaches were closed in New York City due to medical waste and other debris began washing up on the seashores.1988 – The Piper Alpha drilling platform in the North Sea is destroyed by explosions and fires. One hundred sixty-seven oil workers are killed, making it the world’s worst offshore oil disaster in terms of direct loss of life.1989 – The Tel Aviv–Jerusalem bus 405 suicide attack: Fourteen bus passengers are killed when an Arab assaulted the bus driver as the bus was driving by the edge of a cliff.1989 – The U.S. Army destroyed its last Pershing 1-A missiles at an ammunition plant in Karnack, TX. The dismantling was under the terms of the 1987 Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces Treaty.1990 – “Jetson’s the Movie” with Tiffany, premieres1990 – Death of Paul Wynne, KGO-TV San Francisco reporter, of AIDS at 461994 – Death of Cameron Mitchell, actor (High Chapparral), of lung cancer at 751995 – In the Bosnian War, under the command of General Ratko Mladi?, Serbia begins its attack on the Bosnian town of Srebrenica, and kills more than 8000 Bosniaks, in what then- UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali called “the worst crime on European soil since the Second World War”.1996 – Steffi Graf won her seventh Wimbledon title.1997 – The Mars Pathfinder released Sojourner, a robot rover on the surface of Mars. The spacecraft landed on the red planet on July 4th.1997 – The Troubles: In response to the Drumcree dispute, five days of mass protests, riots and gun battles begin in Irish nationalist districts of Northern Ireland.1998 – Death of Roy Rogers, American actor and singer (b. 1911) cowboy actor, at 861998 – Protestants rioted in many parts of Northern Ireland after British authorities blocked an Orange Order march in Portadown.1999 – U.S. Army private Barry Winchell dies from baseball-bat injuries inflicted on him in his sleep the previous day by a fellow soldier, Calvin Glover, for his relationship with transgender showgirl and former Navy Corpsman Calpernia Addams.2000 – A jury awarded former NHL player Tony Twist $24 million for the unauthorized use of his name in the comic book Spawn and the HBO cartoon series. Co-defendant HBO settled with Twist out of court for an undisclosed amount.2000 – Death of Wladyslaw Szpilman, pianist/writer, wrote Death of a City, later filmed as The Pianist, at 782002 – Death of John Frankenheimer, American director, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1930, director, The Manchurian Candidate, at 722002 – Wimbledon Women’s Finals, Serena Williams beat her sister Venus Williams2003 – Death of Buddy Ebsen, American actor, singer, and dancer (b. 1908) TV’s The Beverly Hillbillies, at 952003 – Former ambassador Joseph Wilson, in a New York Times op-ed, disputed President George W. Bush’s statement that Iraq had sought uranium in Africa, saying he had found no evidence to support the claim when the CIA asked him to investigate.2003 – The 70-metre Eupatoria Planetary Radar sends a METI message (Cosmic Call 2) to five stars: Hip 4872, HD 245409, 55 Cancri (HD 75732), HD 10307 and 47 Ursae Majoris (HD 95128). The messages will arrive to these stars in 2036, 2040, 2044 and 2049 respectively.2004 – Death of Syreeta Wright, American singer-songwriter (b. 1946)2004 – Democratic presidential candidate John Kerry chose Sen. John Edwards of North Carolina to be his running mate.2005 – New York Times reporter Judith Miller was jailed after refusing to testify before a grand jury investigating the leak of an undercover CIA operative’s name.2005 – Soap opera actress Kelly Monaco won the first season of “Dancing With the Stars.”2006 – The Nathula Pass between India and China, sealed during the Sino-Indian War, re-openes for trade after 44 years.2009 – Death of Robert McNamara, American businessman and politician, 8th United States Secretary of Defense (b. 1916)2010 – A bill to allow same-sex civil unions is vetoed by Linda Lingle, U.S. governor of Hawaii2010 – Actress Lindsay Lohan was sentenced to 90 days in jail and 90 days in a residential substance-abuse program for violating her probation stemming from two separate 2007 cases of driving under the influence of cocaine and alcohol. (She served 14 days behind bars.) .2010 – Queen Elizabeth II addressed the United Nations for the first time since 1957 during her first New York visit in more than 30 years.2011 – Exiled Tibetans are banned from celebrating the Dalai Lama’s birthday; Nepalese authorities fear the gatherings would become anti-Chinese2011 – The host city of the 2018 Winter Olympics will be Pyeongchang, South Korea; the winter multi-sport event will take place between the 9th and 24th of February, 20182012 – California’s Senate holds a vote to approve the funding for a bullet train between Los Angeles and San Francisco2012 – Yahoo and Facebook agree to settle a patent dispute, dropping lawsuits against each other and now forming an advertising and content-sharing alliance that expands an existing partnership between the two companies2013 – A 73-car oil train derails in the town of Lac-Mégantic, Quebec and explodes into flames, killing at least 47 people and destroying more than 30 buildings in the town’s central area.2013 – A Boeing 777 operating as Asiana Airlines Flight 214 crashes at San Francisco International Airport, killing three and injuring 181 of the 307 people on board.2013 – Egypt names Mohamed ElBaradei Prime Minister

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