TODAY July 4 – Sunni’s History Notes

Holidays and observances

  • Independence from Meat Day
  • Independence Day, celebrates the Declaration of Independence of the United States from Great Britain in 1776. (United States and its dependencies)
  • Liberation Day (Rwanda)
  • Liberation Day (Northern Mariana Islands)
  • Republic Day (Philippines)

362 BC – Battle of Mantinea: The Thebans, led by Epaminondas, defeated the Spartans.

414 – Emperor Theodosius II, age 13, yields power to his older sister Aelia Pulcheria, who reigned as regent and proclaimed herself empress (Augusta) of the Eastern Roman Empire.

1054 – Brightest known super-nova (Crab Nebula) starts shining (23 days). The supernova is seen by Chinese, Arab and possibly Amerindian observers near the star Zeta Tauri. For several months it remains bright enough to be seen during the day. Its remnants form the Crab Nebula.

1623 – Death of William Byrd, English composer (Ave verum corpus), at 80

1634 – The city of Trois-Rivières is founded in New France (now Quebec, Canada)

1636 – City of Providence, Rhode Island forms

1744 – The Treaty of Lancaster, in which the Iroquois cedes lands between the Allegheny Mountains and the Ohio River to the British colonies, was signed in Lancaster, Pennsylvania.

1774 – Orangetown Resolutions are adopted in the Province of New York, one of many protests against the British Parliament’s Coercive Acts

1776 – The amended Declaration of Independence, prepared by Thomas Jefferson, was

Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and Thomas Jeffe...
Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson writing the Declaration of independence (1776) were all of British descent. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

approved and signed by John Hancock, the President of the Continental Congress in America.

1789 – First U.S. tariff act

1796 – First Independence Day celebration is held

1802 – At West Point, New York, the United States Military Academy opens.

1803 – The Louisiana Purchase was announced in newspapers. The property was purchased, by the U.S. from France, was for $15 million (or 3 cents an acre). The “Corps of Discovery,” led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, began the exploration of the territory on May 14, 1804.

1804 – Author Nathaniel Hawthorne was born in Salem, Mass. (d. 1864) author, House of 7 Gables, Scarlet Letter

1816 – Birth of Hiram Walker, American businessman, founded Canadian club whiskey (d. 1899)

1817 – Construction began on the Erie Canal, to connect Lake Erie and the Hudson River.

1826 – Birth of Stephen Foster, American songwriter (d. 1864) Lawrencevil, Pennsylvania, Oh! Susanna, Swanee River

1826 – Death of John Adams, American politician, 2nd President of the United States (b. 1735)

1826 – Death of Thomas Jefferson, American politician, 3rd President of the United States (b. 1743)

1826 – Thomas Jefferson, third president of the United States, dies the same day as John Adams, second president of the United States, on the fiftieth anniversary of the adoption of the United States Declaration of Independence. John Adams died at age 90 in Braintree, Mass., while Thomas Jefferson died at 83 at Monticello, his home near Charlottesville, Va.

1827 – Slavery is abolished in New York State.

1828 – Construction begins on B and O (Baltimore-Ohio) First U.S. passenger railroad

1829 – Cornerstone laid for First U.S. mint (Chestnut and Juniper St, Philadelphia)

1831 – Death of James Monroe, American politician, 5th President of the United States (b. 1758) at age 73 in New York City

1831 – Samuel Francis Smith writes My Country, ‘Tis of Thee for the Boston, Massachusetts July 4 festivities.

1832 – The song “America” was sung in public for the first time at the Park Street Church in Boston, MA.

1836 – Wisconsin Territory forms

1837 – Grand Junction Railway, the world’s first long-distance railway, opens between Birmingham and Liverpool.

1838 – The Iowa Territory is organized.

1845 – American writer Henry David Thoreau began his two-year experiment in simple living at Walden Pond, near Concord, MA.

1845 – Birth of Thomas John Barnardo, Irish philanthropist and humanitarian (d. 1905)

1845 – Texas Congress votes for annexation to U.S.

1847 – Birth of James Anthony Bailey, American circus ringmaster, co-founded Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus (d. 1906)

1848 – In Washington, DC, the cornerstone for the Washington Monument was laid.

1855 – In Brooklyn, New York City, the first edition of Walt Whitman’s book of poems, Leaves of Grass, is published.

1855 – The first edition of “Leaves of Grass,” by Walt Whitman, was published in Brooklyn, NY.

1861 – In a special session of 27th Congress Lincoln requests 400,000 troops

1862 – Lewis Carroll tells Alice Liddell a story that would grow into Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland and its sequels.

1863 – American Civil War: Siege of Vicksburg: Vicksburg, Mississippi surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant after 47 days of siege. One hundred fifty miles up the Mississippi River, a Confederate Army was repulsed at the Battle of Helena, Arkansas.

1863 – American Civil War: The Army of Northern Virginia withdrew from the battlefield after losing the Battle of Gettysburg, signalling an end to the Southern invasion of the North.

1863 – Death of Paul Joseph Revere, U.S. grandson of Paul Revere/Union Brigadier-General

1863 – Boise, Idaho founded (now capital of Idaho)

1863 – Failed Confederate assault on Helena Arkansas (640 casualties)

1865 – First edition of “Alice in Wonderland” is published

1866 – Firecracker thrown in wood starts fire destroying of Portland, Me

1872 – Birth of Calvin Coolidge, American politician, 30th President of the United States (d. 1933)

1875 – White Democrats kill several blacks in terrorist attacks in Vicksburg

1876 – First public exhibition of electric light in San Francisco

1876 – Batholdi visits Bedloe Island, future home of his Statue of Liberty

1878 – Thoroughbred horses Ten Broeck and Mollie McCarty run a match race, recalled in the song Molly and Tenbrooks.

1879 – Anglo-Zulu War: The Zululand capital of Ulundi is captured by British troops and burned to the ground, ending the war and forcing King Cetshwayo to flee.

1881 – Birth of Ulysses S. Grant III, American general (d. 1968)

1881 – Booker T. Washington establishes Tuskegee Institute in Alabama

1882 – Birth of Louis B. Mayer, Belarusian-American film producer, founded the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (d. 1957)

1882 – Telegraph Hill Observatory opens in San Francisco

1883 – Birth of Rube Goldberg, American sculptor, cartoonist, and author (d. 1970)

1883 – Buffalo Bill Cody presents First wild west show, North Platte, Nebr

1884 – Statue of Liberty presented to U.S. in Paris

1886 – The first scheduled Canadian transcontinental train arrives in Port Moody, British Columbia.

The Statue of Liberty, also known as Lady Libe...
The Statue of Liberty, also known as Lady Liberty her official name is Liberty Enlightening the World. It was dedicated on October 28, 1886, and is a monument commemorating the centennial of the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence, given to the United States by the people of France to represent the friendship between the two countries established during the American Revolution. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

1886 – The people of France offer the Statue of Liberty to the people of the United States.

1889 – Washington state constitutional convention holds First meeting

1892 – The first double-decked street car service was inaugurated in San Diego, CA.

1892 – Western Samoa changes the International Date Line, so that year it had 367 days, with two occurrences of Monday, July 4.

1894 – After seizing power, Judge Stanford B. Dole declared Hawaii a republic.

1894 – Elwood Haynes successfully tests one of First U.S. autos at 6 MPH

1895 – Birth of Irving Caesar, American songwriter and composer (d. 1996)

1895 – Katherine Lee Bates publishes “America the Beautiful”

1898 – Birth of Francis Flagg (Legal Name: Weiss, Henry George), American author (d. 1946)

Louis Armstrong
Louis Armstrong

1900 – Birth of Louis “Satchmo” Armstrong, born in New Orleans, Louisiana, jazz musician, Hello Dolly

1901 – William H. Taft became the American governor of the Philippines.

1902 – Birth of George Murphy, American actor and politician (d. 1992) born in New Haven, Connecticut, Senator-R-California 1965 – 1971, actor and dancer, MGM Parade

1902 – Death of Swami Vivekananda, Indian monk (b. 1863) founder of Ramakrishna Mission, chief disciple of Ramakrishna, responsible for bringing Vedanta and Yoga to Europe, America, introduced Hinduism at Parliament of World Religions at Chicago, 1893, at age 39, suffered form Asthma, diabetes, and other physical ailments

1903 – Dorothy Levitt is reported as the first woman in the world to compete in a ‘motor race’.

1903 – Philippine–American War officially is concluded.

1903 – Pacific Cable (SF, Hawaii, Guam, Phil) opens, President TR sends message

1905 – Birth of Irving Johnson, American sailor and author (d. 1991)

1906 – Great Britain, France and Italy grant Independence to Ethiopia

1909 – Birth of Lynette Roberts, born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Evelyn Beatrice Roberts, poet, studied at London’s Central School for Arts and Crafts, Faber and Faber published works, ‘Poems’, ‘Gods with stainless ears; a heroic poem’

1910 – African-American boxer Jack Johnson knocks out white boxer Jim Jeffries in a heavyweight boxing match, sparking race riots across the United States.

1910 – Birth of Gloria Stuart, American actress (d. 2010) actress, Rose-Titanic, founder, Screen Actors Guild

1911 – A massive heat wave strikes the northeastern United States, killing 380 people in eleven days and breaking temperature records in several cities. 105 degrees F (41 degrees C) at Vernon, Vermont (state record); 106 degrees F (41 degrees C) at Nashua, New Hampshire (state record)

1913 – President Woodrow Wilson addresses American Civil War veterans at the Great Reunion of 1913.

1914 – Birth of Giuseppe ‘Nuccio’ Bertone, car designer

1914 – The funeral of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie takes place in Vienna, six days after their assassinations in Sarajevo.

1914 – First U.S. motorcycle race (300 miles, Dodge City Ks)

1915 – Birth of Christine Lavant, writer

1915 – Birth of Jimmie Rogers, born in Detroit, Michigan, singer, Sugar Hill Time

Iva Toguri, known as Tokyo Rose, and Tomoya Ka...
Iva Toguri, known as Tokyo Rose, and Tomoya Kawakita were two Japanese Americans who were tried for treason after World War II. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

1916 – Birth of Iva Toguri D’Aquino, “Tokyo Rose” American typist and broadcaster propagandist, WW II (d. 2006)

1918 – Birth of Abigail Van Buren, Mrs Morton Phillips, Sioux City Iowa, columnist “Dear Abby”

1918 – Birth of Ann Landers, born in Sioux City, Iowa, twin sister/advice columnist

1918 – Bolsheviks killed Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and his family (Julian calendar date).

The Maryhill Stonehenge replica in Washington ...
The Maryhill Stonehenge replica in Washington State, USA, originally a project of transportation magnate Samuel Hill (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

1918 – Altar dedicated at full-scale replica of Stonehenge at Maryhill, Wa

1920 – Birth of Leona Helmsley, American businesswoman (d. 2007) born in New York, billionaire hotel operator, real estate investor, convicted of tax evasion

1925 – 44 die when Dreyfus Hotel in Boston collapses

1927 – Birth of Gina Lollobrigida, born in Subiaco, Italy, actress, Trapeze, Falcon Crest

1927 – Birth of Neil Simon, American playwright and screenwriter, Bronx, playwright, Odd Couple, Plaza Suite, Biloxi Blues

1928 – Birth of Patrick Tilley, UK, sci-fi author, First Family, Blood River

1928 – Birth of Sylvius G M “Boy” Rozendal, premier, Netherland’s Antilles

1929 – AM radio station WOWO, Indiana’s transmitter burns down

1931 – First fireworks are held at Cleveland Stadium

1933 – Work begins on Oakland Bay Bridge

1934 – At Mount Rushmore, George Washington’s face was dedicated.

1934 – Boxer Joe Louis won his first professional fight.

1934 – Death of “Madame” Marie Curie-Sklodovska, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1867)

1934 – Leo Szilard patented the chain-reaction design for the atomic bomb.

1936 – League of Nations starts sanctions against Italy

1938 – Birth of Bill Withers, American singer-songwriter and producer, Slab Fork, West Virginia, rhythm and blues singer, Lean on Me

1940 – Birth of Dave Rowberry, English pianist and songwriter (The Animals) (d. 2003)

1941 – Death of Antoni ?omnicki, Polish mathematician (b. 1881)

1941 – Nazi troops massacre Polish scientists and writers in the captured Ukrainian city of Lviv.

1941 – Howard Florey and Norman Heatley meet for First time, 11 days later they successfully recreate penicillin

1942 – The Irving Berlin musical, “This is the Army”, opened at New York’s Broadway Theatre.

1942 – First American bombing mission over enemy-occupied Europe (WW II)

1943 – Birth of Alan Wilson, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (Canned Heat) (d. 1970)

1943 – Birth of Geraldo Rivera, American lawyer, journalist, and author, born in New York City, news personality, 20/20, Geraldo

1943 – World War II: In Gibraltar, a Royal Air Force B-24 Liberator bomber crashes into the sea in an apparent accident moments after takeoff, killing sixteen passengers on board; only the pilot survives.

1943 – World War II: The Battle of Kursk, the largest full-scale battle in history and the world’s largest tank battle, begins in Prokhorovka village.

1944 – 1,100 U.S. guns fire 4th of July salute at German lines in Normandy

1944 – First Japanese kamikaze attack, U.S. fleet near Iwo Jima

1946 – After 381 years of near-continuous colonial rule by various powers, the Philippines attains full independence from the United States.

1946 – Birth of Ron Kovic, American author and activist, disabled vietnam vet, Born on 4th of July

1947 – Birth of A. C. Ellis, American author.

1947 – The “Indian Independence Bill” is presented before the British House of Commons, proposing the independence of the Provinces of British India into two sovereign countries: India and Pakistan.

1948 – Birth of Jeremy Spencer, English guitarist (Fleetwood Mac)

1950 – Birth of David Jensen, Canadian-English radio host, born in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, David ‘Kid’ Jensen, popular British radio DJ, played progressive music, hosted BBC pop network, Radio 1, Top of the Pops presenter, interviewed Duran Duran, promoted The Police before they were commercially successful

1950 – Radio Free Europe first broadcasts.

1950 – Truman signs public law 600 (Puerto Ricans write own constitution)

1951 – A court in Czechoslovakia sentences American journalist William N. Oatis to ten years in prison on charges of espionage.

1951 – Birth of Ralph Johnson, rock drummer, Earth Wind and Fire-Shining Star

1951 – William Shockley announced the invention of the junction transistor.

1952 – Birth of John Waite, English singer-songwriter and guitarist (The Babys and Bad English)

1955 – The first king cobra snakes born in captivity in the U.S. hatched at the Bronx Zoo in New York City.

1956 – Independence National Historical Park forms in Philadelphia

1956 – U.S. most intense rain fall (1.23″ in 1 minute) at Unionville, Maryland

1957 – Birth of Jenny Seagrove, English actress and animal activist

1957 – The U.S. Postal Service issued the 4¢ Flag stamp.

1958 – Birth of Kirk Pengilly, Australian singer and guitarist (INXS)

1958 – Karol Wojtyla, the future Pope John Paul II, was appointed auxilliary bishop of Krakow in his native Poland.

1959 – Cayman Islands separated from Jamaica, made a crown colony

1960 – America’s new 50-star flag honoring Hawaiian statehood unfurled .Due to the post-Independence Day admission of Hawaii as the 50th U.S. state on August 21, 1959, the 50-star flag of the United States debuts in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, almost ten and a half months later (see Flag Act).

1961 – Birth of Richard Garriott, English-American video game designer

1962 – Island Records begins

1962 – KIKU (now KHNL) TV channel 13 in Honolulu, HI (IND) First broadcast

1963 – Birth of Michael Sweet, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (Stryper and Boston)

1964 – Birth of Mark Slaughter, American singer-songwriter and producer (Slaughter and Vinnie Vincent Invasion)

1964 – Beachboy’s “I Get Around” reaches #1

1966 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Freedom of Information Act into United States law. The act went into effect the next year.

1966 – Beatles attacked in Philippines after insulting Imelda Marcos

1967 – Tom Jones appeared on the first telecast of CBS-TV’s “Spotlight”.

1968 – Radio astronomy satellite Explorer 38 launched (o 450 m)

1969 – “Give Peace a Chance” by Plastic Ono Band is released in U.K.

1969 – 140,000 attend Atlanta Pop Festival featuring Led Zep and Janis Joplin

1970 – Death of Harold Stirling Vanderbilt, American sailor and businessman (b. 1884)

1970 – Casey Kasem’s “American Top 40” debuts on LA radio

1970 – Chartered Dan-Air Comet crashes into mountains north of Barcelona, Spain killing 112 vacationing Britons

1971 – Birth of Koko, American gorilla

1971 – Death of August Derleth, American anthologist and author (b. 1909)

1971 – France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island

1972 – Birth of William Goldsmith, American drummer (Sunny Day Real Estate, Foo Fighters, and The Fire Theft)

1973 – CARICOM – Caribbean Community and Common Market, forms

1973 – In audience with Italian cyclists, Pope Paul VI praises athletes who “offer the magnificent show of a healthy, strong, generous youth”

1976 – Elton John and Kiki Dee’s “Don’t Go Breaking My Heart” was released.

1976 – Israeli commandos raid Entebbe airport in Uganda, rescuing all but four of the passengers and crew of an Air France jetliner seized by Palestinian terrorists.

1976 – The U.S. celebrated its Bicentennial.

1977 – The George Jackson Brigade plants a bomb at the main power substation for the Washington state capitol in Olympia, in solidarity with a prison strike at the Walla Walla State Penitentiary Intensive Security Unit

1977 – Nigel Harrison replaces Gary Valentine as bassist of Blondie

1980 – The Beach Boys gave a free outdoor performance to an estimated 500,000 people in Washington.

1982 – Death of Sylvestre A Guzman Fernandez, President Dominican Rep, commits suicide

1982 – Death of Terry Higgins, Welsh AIDS victim (b. 1945)

1982 – Diana Ross began her first solo world tour at Giant Stadium in the Meadowlands.

1982 – Four Iranian diplomats are abducted by Lebanese militia in Lebanon.

1982 – Ozzy Osbourne married his manager, Sharon Arden.

1982 – 4th Space Shuttle Mission-Columbia 4 lands at Edwards AFB

1982 – Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado elected president of Mexico

1982 – U.S.S.R. performs nuclear test at Semipalitinsk, Eastern Kazakhstan U.S.S.R.

1985 – In Philadelphia, PA, the Beach Boys were joined on stage by Mr. T on drums.

1987 – Klaus Barbie, the former Gestapo chief known as the “Butcher of Lyon,” was convicted by a French court of crimes against humanity and sentenced to life in prison.

1987 – Discovery moves to Launch Pad 39B for STS-26 mission

1988 – U.S. Navy shoots down Iranian civilian jetliner over Gulf, kills 290

1989 – 14 year old actress Drew Barrymore, attempts suicide

1990 – 2 Live Crew release “Banned in the USA” the lyrics quote Star Spangled Banner and Gettysburg Address

1990 – 400 New Kids on the Block fans treated for heat exhaustion in Minn

1992 – John Phillips, rocker (Mamas and Papas), undergoes a liver transplant

1993 – Pizza Hut blimp deflates and lands safely on W 56th street in New York City

1994 – Death of Arthur Berry, playwright, artist, teacher, poet, studied, then taught at Burslem School of Art, absorbed by Stoke-on-Trent College of Art, which in 1971 became North Staffordshire Polytechnic, where he taught painting until 1985, at 69

nist/Israeli MP/mayor of Nazareth

1994 – Rwandan Genocide: Kigali, the Rwandan capital, is captured by the Rwandan Patriotic Front, ending the genocide in the city.

1994 – Russian manned space craft TM-18, lands

1995 – At Lollapalooza in George, WA, Courtney Love hit Kathleen Hanna (Bikini Kill). Love received a suspended one-year sentence and was required to take courses in anger management.

1995 – Death of Bob Ross, American painter (b. 1942)

1995 – Death of Eva Gabor, Hungarian-American actress and singer (b. 1919) actress (Green Acres), at 74

1996 – Death of Clay Jones, horticulturalist, broadcaster, Chairman of the program Gardener’s Question Time on BBC Radio 4, voted tenth alongside Carol Klein as the nation’s all-time favorite gardener, at 72

1996 – HotMail, a free internet E-mail service begins

1997 – Death of Charles Kuralt, American journalist (b. 1934) news anchor for CBS Sunday Morning, at 62

1997 – Ferry service between Manhattan and Staten Island was made free of charge. Previously, the charge had ranged from 5 cents to 50 cents.

1997 – The Mars Pathfinder, an unmanned spacecraft, landed on Mars. A rover named Sojourner was deployed to gather data about the surface of the planet.

1998 – Japan launches the Nozomi probe to Mars, joining the United States and Russia as a space exploring nation.

2002 – Death of “General Benjamin O. Davis, Jr”, American general (b. 1912) Air Force General, first black general in the Air Force, at 89

2002 – Death of Winnifred Quick, American RMS Titanic survivor (b. 1904)

2003 – Death of Barry White, American singer-songwriter, pianist, and producer (b. 1944) man with velvet voice, “, Can’t Get Enough of Your Love, Babe, “, at 58

2004 – In New York, the cornerstone of the Freedom Tower was laid on the former World Trade Center site.

2005 – NASA’s Deep Impact spacecraft took pictures as a space probe smashed into the Tempel 1 comet. The mission was aimed at learning more about comets that formed from the leftover buidling blocks of the solar system. The Deep Impact mission launched on January 12, 2005.

2007 – Death of Bill Pinkney, American singer (The Drifters) (b. 1925)

2007 – BBC journalist Alan Johnston is freed by Palestinian kidnappers

2008 – Death of Jesse Helms, American journalist and politician (b. 1921) in North Carolina, at 86

2009 – Death of Drake Levin, American guitarist (Paul Revere & the Raiders) (b. 1946)

2009 – North Korea launched seven ballistic missiles into waters off its east coast that defied U.N. resolutions.

2009 – The Statue of Liberty’s crown reopens to the public after eight years of closure due to security concerns following the September 11 attacks.

2010 – George Michael was arrested “on suspicion of being unfit to drive” after police received reports of a car that had crashed into a building in north London. On September 14, he was sentenced to eight weeks in jail.

2010 – An Iranian woman convicted of adultery is sentenced to death by stoning; Iranian human rights activist Mina Ahadi tries to stop this barbaric act

2010 – Gen. David Petraeus formally assumed command of the 130,000-strong international force in Afghanistan.

2012 – Death of Scamper, American rodeo horse (b. 1977)

2012 – The discovery of particles consistent with the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider is announced at CERN.

2013 – After sustaining extensive damage from Hurricane Sandy in late October 2012, the Statue of Liberty is once again open to the public

2013 – In Brazil, scientists discover a new species of lizard, about the size a coin and weighing less than a gram

???? – Birth of Chris McKitterick, Director at Center for the Study of Science Fiction

???? – Birth of Max Booth, III, American author, editor.


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