TODAY July 3 – Sunni’s History Notes

Holidays and observances
  • Stay Out of the Sun Day
  • Compliment Your Mirror Day
  • Emancipation Day (United States Virgin Islands)
  • Independence Day, celebrates the liberation of Minsk from Nazi occupation by Soviet troops in 1944. (Belarus)
  • The start of the Dog Days according to The Old Farmer’s Almanac but not according to established meaning in most European cultures.
  • Women’s Day (Myanmar)
 324 – Battle of Adrianople: Constantine I defeats Licinius, who flees to Byzantium.683- Death of Leo II, Pope (681-83)987 – Hugh Capet is crowned King of France, the first of the Capetian dynasty that would rule France until the French Revolution in 1792.1035 – William the Conqueror becomes the Duke of Normandy, reigns until 1087.1187 – Crusaders enter Tiberias1423 – Birth of Louis XI, King of France, 1461-831567 – Birth of Samuel de Champlain, explorer, Lake Champlain1570- Death of Antonio Paleario, Italian humanist (b. 1500), executed by inquisition at 671608 – The city of Quebec was founded by Samuel de Champlain.1642 – Death of Marie de’ Medici, Italian-French wife of Henri IV of France (b. 1575)1661 – Portugal gives Tanger and Bombay to English King Charles II1672 – Death of Francis Willughby, English ornithologist and ichthyologist (b. 1635)1754 – French and Indian War: George Washington surrenders Fort Necessity to French forces.1767 – Norway’s oldest newspaper still in print, Adresseavisen, is founded and the first edition is published.1767 – Pitcairn Island is discovered by Midshipman Robert Pitcairn on an expeditionary voyage commanded by Philip Carteret.1775 – American Revolutionary War: George Washington takes command of the Continental Army at Cambridge, Massachusetts.1778 – American Revolutionary War: British forces kill 360 people in the Wyoming Valley massacre.1778 – Death of Anna Maria Mozart, Austrian mother of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (b. 1720)1778 – Prussia declares war on Austria1778- Death of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, French writer/composer (Pygmalion)1790 – In Paris, the marquis of Condorcet proposed granting civil rights to women.1795 – Death of Antonio de Ulloa, Spanish general, explorer, author, and astronomer, first Colonial Governor of Louisiana (b. 1716)1806 – Michael Keens exhibits first cultivated strawberry1814 – Americans capture Fort Erie Canada1816 – French frigate “Medusa” runs aground off Cap Blanc. Gross incompetence kills 150 in calm seas1816- Death of Dorothea Jordan, French actress/mistress (William IV), at 651819 – The Bank of Savings in New York City, the first savings bank in the United States, opens.1839 – The first state normal school in the United States, the forerunner to today’s Framingham State College, opens in Lexington, Massachusetts with three students.1841 – John Couch Adams decides to determine position of an unknown planet by irregularities it causes in the motion of Uranus1844 – Ambassador Caleb Cushing successfully negotiated a commercial treaty with China that opened five Chinese ports to U.S. merchants and protected the rights of American citizens in China.1844 – The last pair of Great Auks is killed.1848 – Slaves are freed in the Danish West Indies (now U.S. Virgin Islands) by Peter von Scholten in the culmination of a year-long plot by enslaved Africans.1852 – Congress establishes the United States’ 2nd mint in San Francisco.1853 – Commodore Matthew Perry reaches Japan1861 – Pony Express arrives in San Francisco with overland letters from New York1863 – The Civil War Battle of Gettysburg in Pennsylvania ended after three days in a major victory for the North as Confederate troops retreated.1871 – Birth of W. H. Davies, born in Newport, Monmouthsire, Wales, poet, writer, related to actor, Sir Henry Irving, cared for by paternal grandparents, wrote, ‘The Autobiography of a Super-Tramp’1871 – Jesse James robs bank in Corydon, Iowa ($45,000)1871 – The Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad Company introduced the first narrow-gauge locomotive. It was called the “Montezuma.”1878 – Birth of George M. Cohan, American actor, singer, and dancer (d. 1942) 1878 – Broadway song-and-dance man George M. Cohan was born in Providence, R.I. (Cohan claimed to have been – as he wrote in one of his patriotic songs – “born on the Fourth of July.”)1878 – John Wise flew the first dirigible in Lancaster, PA.1880 – “Science” began publication. Thomas Edison had provided the principle funding.1883 – Birth of Franz Kafka, Czech-German author (d. 1924)
Franz Kafka
Franz Kafka (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
1884 – Dow Jones and Company publishes its first stock average.1886 – Karl Benz officially unveils the Benz Patent Motorwagen – the first purpose-built automobile.1886 – The New York Tribune becomes the first newspaper to use a linotype machine, eliminating typesetting by hand.1890 – Idaho is admitted as the 43rd U.S. state.1890 – King Leopold II gives Congo to Belgium1895 – Start of Sherlock Holmes “Adventure of Black Peter”1898 – During the Spanish American War, a fleet of Spanish ships in Cuba’s Santiago Harbor attempted to run a blockade of U.S. naval forces. Nearly all of the Spanish ships were destroyed in the battle that followed.1898 – Joshua Slocum completes first solo circumnavigation of the globe1903 – The first cable across the Pacific Ocean was spliced between Honolulu, Midway, Guam and Manila.1907 – Birth of Gene Gutche, born in Berlin, Germany, Romeo Maximillian Eugene Ludwig Gutsche, composer, studied business, economics, piano with Ferruccio Busoni, wrote neo-Romantic work, experimented with polytonality, microtones, serialism1907 – Pope decree forbids modernization of theology1909 – Birth of Earl Butz, born in Indiana, served as U.S. Secretary of Agriculture during the Nixon and Ford administrations1913 – Common tern banded in Maine; found dead in 1919 in Africa (first bird known to have crossed the Atlantic)1913 – Confederate veterans at the Great Reunion of 1913 reenact Pickett’s Charge; upon reaching the high-water mark of the Confederacy they are met by the outstretched hands of friendship from Union survivors.1915 – U.S. military forces occupy Haiti, remain until 19341916 – First of 3 fatal shark attacks occurred near New Jersey shore (4 die)1920 – Royal Air Force holds an air display at Hendon, England. “Smoke me a kipper skipper, I’ll be back for breakfast.”1922 – “Fruit Garden and Home” magazine was introduced. It was later renamed “Better Homes and Gardens.”1922 – Birth of Corneille [Cornelis G of Beverloo], Dutch painter, Africa, Antilles1924 – Clarence Birdseye founded the General Seafood Corp.1927 – Birth of Ken Russell, English actor, director, and producer (d. 2011) Tommy, Altered States, Gothic1928 – First color TV broadcast in London (John Logic Baird)1929 – Dunlop Latex Development Laboratories made foam rubber1930 – The U.S. Congress created the U.S. Veterans Administration.1935 – Birth of Harrison H “Jack” Schmitt, Santa Rita, New Mexico, astronaut, Apollo 171936 – Jahangir Khan kills a sparrow while cricket bowling, Cambridge U vs. MCC1937 – Birth of Tom Stoppard, born in Czechoslovakia, playwright, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern-1968 Tony1937 – Death of Jacob Schick, American-Canadian captain and businessman, invented the electric razor (b. 1877)1938 – United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt dedicates the Eternal Light Peace Memorial and lights the eternal flame at Gettysburg Battlefield.1938 – World speed record for a steam railway locomotive is set in England, by the Mallard, which reaches a speed of 126 miles per hour (203 km/h).1939 – Chic Young’s comic strip character, “Blondie” was first heard on CBS radio.1939 – Ernst Heinkel demonstrates 800-kph rocket plane to Hitler1939 – Lou Gehrig day; Gehrig makes “luckiest man” speech1940 – Birth of Fontella Bass, American singer-songwriter (d. 2012)1940 – Bud Abbott and Lou Costello debuted on NBC radio.1940 – German occupiers forbids using Dutch royal names1940 – World War II: In order to stop the ships from falling into German hands the French fleet of the Atlantic based at Mers El Kébir, is bombarded by the British fleet, coming from Gibraltar, causing the loss of three battleships: Dunkerque, Provence and Bretagne. One thousand two hundred sailors perish.1942 – Birth of Kurtwood Smith, born in New Lisbon, Wisconsin, actor, Rambo III, Robocop1945 – The first civilian passenger car built since February 1942 was driven off the assembly line at the Ford Motor Company plant in Detroit, MI. Production had been diverted due to World War II.
English: Sf author Michael Shea at The Variety...
English: Sf author Michael Shea at The Variety Preview Room in San Francisco (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
1946 – Birth of Michael Shea, American author. (d. 2014)1947 – 252,288 people (record) pass through Grand Central Station, New York City1947 – Birth of Dave Barry, born in Armonk, New York, humorist, author, Pulitzer-prize winner for Commentary 1988, wrote columns for the Miami Herald, books include ‘Big Trouble’, ‘Dave Barry Turns 40′, Dave Barry’s Greatest Hits’, ‘Dave Barry’s Complete Guide to Guys’, style capitalizes on absurdities1947 – Birth of Top Topham, English guitarist (The Yardbirds)1948 – Birth of Paul Barrere, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (Little Feat)1949 – Birth of Jan Smithers, born in North Hollywood, California, actress, Bailey-WKRP1949 – Birth of John Verity, English guitarist with Argent1949 – Birth of Johnnie Wilder, Jr., American singer (Heatwave) (d. 2006)1950 – U.S. carrier-based planes attacked airfields in the Pyongyang-Chinnampo area of North Korea in the first air-strike of the Korean War.1952 – Birth of Andy Fraser, born in Paddington, West London, pianist, guitarist, songwriter, played bass for Free, composed “All Right Now”, wrote hits for Robert Palmer, Rod Stewart, Joe Cocker1952 – The Constitution of Puerto Rico is approved by the Congress of the United States.1954 – Food rationing ended in Great Britain almost nine years after the end of World War II.1956 – Birth of Montel Williams, American actor and talk show host1957 – Birth of Laura Branigan, American singer-songwriter and actress (d. 2004)1958 – “Andy Williams Show” premieres on ABC (later on CBS and NBC)1959 – Birth of Stephen Pearcy, American singer-songwriter, and guitarist (Ratt, Arcade, Vertex, and Vicious Delite)1960 – Birth of Vince Clarke, English singer-songwriter, keyboard player, and producer (Depeche Mode, Yazoo, The Assembly, Erasure, and VCMG)1960 – Vernon Presley (father of Elvis) weds Dee Alliot1962 – Algeria became independent after 132 years of French rule.1962 – Birth of Hunter Tylo, model, Pantene, actress, Bold and Beautiful1962 – Birth of Taylor Dayne, New York, vocalist, Tell it to My Heart1962 – Birth of Tom Cruise, Syracuse, actor, Risky Business, Jerry MaGuire, Rainman1962 – Jackie Robinson became the first African American to be inducted into the National Baseball Hall of (1)1964 – Birth of Yeardley Smith, born in Paris, France, actress, writer, painter, known for role as Lisa Simpson on ‘The Simpsons’ animated television series, appeared on ‘Dharma & Greg’ sitcom1965 – Death of Trigger, American horse (b. 1932)1967 – The Doors released the song “Light My Fire” in the U.S.1968 – 41 degrees F lowest temperature ever recorded in Cleveland in July1969 – 78,000 attend Newport Jazz Festival, Newport, Rhode Island1969 – Death of Brian Jones, English guitarist, songwriter, and producer (The Rolling Stones) (b. 1942) was found dead in his swimming pool at his Cotchford Farm, Hartfield, England, home.1969 –Space Race: The biggest explosion in the history of rocketry occurs when the Soviet N-1 rocket explodes and subsequently destroys its launchpad.1970 – 200,000 attend Atlanta Pop Festival1971 – Death of Jim Morrison, American singer-songwriter (The Doors and Rick & the Ravens) (b. 1943) died in Paris at age 27. He allegedly died of a heroin overdose.1974 – Soyuz 14 carries 2 cosmonauts to space station Salyut 31974 – The Threshold Test Ban Treaty was signed, prohibiting underground nuclear weapons tests with yields greater than 150 kilotons.1975 – Chuck Negron (Three Dog Night) was arrested for cocaine possession.1976 – After 12 years, Brian Wilson performs with the Beach Boys1976 – Israel launches rescue of 103 Air France crew and passengers being held at Entebbe Airport in Uganda by pro-Palestinian hijackers1978 – Supreme Court rules 5-4, FCC had a right to reprimand New York radio station WBAI for broadcasting George Carlin’s “Filthy Words”1979 – Birth of Lauren Alviti, Miss Rhode Island Teen USA 19971979 – U.S. President Jimmy Carter signs the first directive for secret aid to the opponents of the pro-Soviet regime in Kabul.1980 – Birth of Olivia Munn, American actress1981 – New York City transit fare rises from 60 cents to 75 cents, new brass Y-cut-out token1981 – The Associated Press ran its first story about two rare illnesses afflicting homosexual men. One of the diseases was later named AIDS.1983 – Calvin Smith of U.S. becomes fastest man alive (9.93 for 100m)1984 – A nuclear bomb is dropped on Lexington, KY to contain the spread of reanimated corpses tainted with 2-4-5 Trioxin accidentally loosed by Uneeda Medical Supply. (Return of the Living Dead)1984 – Dolphin rocket launched off San Clemente Island1984 – Supreme Court rules Jaycees may be forced to admit women as members1985 – CBS announces a 21% stock buy-back to thwart Ted Turner’s takeover1985 – The time-travel comedy “Back to the Future,” starring Michael J. Fox and Christopher Lloyd, was released in movie theaters.1986 – U.S. President Reagan presided over a ceremony in New York Harbor that saw the relighting of the renovated Statue of Liberty.1987 – 2 men became first hot-air balloon travelers to cross Atlantic1988 – The Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge in Istanbul, Turkey is completed, providing the second connection between the continents of Europe and Asia over the Bosphorus.1988 – United States Navy warship USS Vincennes shoots down Iran Air Flight 655 over the Persian Gulf, killing all 290 people aboard.1989 – Death of Jim Backus, American actor (b. 1913) (Magoo, Gilligan’s Island), at 76 of pneumonia1989 – The movie “Batman,” set record of quickest $100 million (10 days)1990 – Members of 2 Live Crew formally charged with obscenity in Florida1991 – Donald Trump gives Marla Maples a 7.45 karat diamond ring1991 – U.S. President George H.W. Bush formally inaugurated the Mount Rushmore National Memorial in South Dakota.1992- Death of Marc Tannenbaum, rabbi (only Jew to attend Vatican II), at 661993- Death of “Curly” Joe DeRita, last of Three Stooges, of pneumonia at 831994 – 30 die in 3 fatal auto accidents in Texas1995 – Scott Weiland (Stone Temple Pilots) pled innocent to drug charges.1996 – Stone of Scone is returned to Scotland.1996- Death of Raaj Kumar, film star, actor in Bollywood movies, famous for film ‘Mother India’, at 681997 – Mississippi becomes first state to settle tobacco suit1998 – Death of Danielle Bunten Berry, American game designer and programmer (b. 1949)2001 – Former Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic refused to enter a plea on war crimes charges in his first appearance before a U.N. tribunal at The Hague.2005 – A NASA space probe, Deep Impact, hit its comet target as planned in a mission to learn how the solar system formed.2006 – Death of Joseph Goguen, American computer scientist, developed the OBJ programming language (b. 1941)2009 – Death of John Keel, American journalist and author (b. 1930)2009 – Sarah Palin announced she would resign as Alaska governor with 16 months left in her term.2010 – A fuel tanker overturns and explodes in South Kivu province of the Democratic Republic of Congo, killing over 230 people and injuring2011 – A tourist boat travelling off the coast of Baja California in Mexico sinks; 23 people are reported missing2012 – Death of Andy Griffith, American actor, singer, and producer (b. 1926)2012 – New Zealand sustains a major earthquake, with minor damage reported2013 – 2013 Egyptian coup d’état: President of Egypt Mohamed Morsi is overthrown by the military after four days of protests all over the country calling for Morsi’s resignation, to which he didn’t respond. President of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt Adly Mansour is declared acting president.2013 – Death of Snoo Wilson, English playwright and screenwriter (b. 1948)2013 – El Paraiso, Peru: property developers destroy a 4,000-year old pyramid2013 – In Belgium, King Albert II abdicates his throne to son, Prince Philippe, Duke of Brabant, due to health reasons2014 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed above 17,000 for the first time.

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