TODAY July 1 – Sunni’s History Notes

Holidays and observances
  • Second half of the year day
  • Canada Day (formerly Dominion Day, Canada)
  • Doctors’ Day (India)
  • Earliest day on which St Pauls Carnival can fall, while July 7 is the latest; celebrated on the first Saturday in July. (Bristol)
  • Emancipation Day (Netherlands Antilles)
  • Emancipation Day or Keti Koti (Suriname)
  • Hong Kong SAR Establishment Day (Hong Kong)
  • Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Burundi from Belgium in 1962.
  • Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Rwanda from Belgium in 1962.
  • International Tartan Day (Australia and New Zealand)
  • July Morning tradition (Bulgaria)
  • Madeira Day (Madeira)
  • Memorial Day (Newfoundland and Labrador)
  • Moving Day (Quebec)
  • Republic Day (Ghana)
  • Republic Day, celebrates the independence of Somalia from Italy and the unification of British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland to form Somali Republic. (Somalia)
  • Sir Seretse Khama Day (Botswana)
69 – Tiberius Julius Alexander orders his Roman legions in Alexandria to swear allegiance to Vespasian as Emperor.70 – Titus sets up batterig rams to assault the walls of Jerusalem552 – Battle of Taginae: Byzantine forces under Narses defeat the Ostrogoths in Italy. During the fightings king Totila is mortally wounded.649 – Pope Martinus I elected to succeed Theodore I1097 – First Crusaders defeat Sultan Kilidj Arslan of Nicea. Battle of Dorylaeum: Crusaders led by prince Bohemond of Taranto defeat a Seljuk army led by sultan Kilij Arslan I.1200 – In China, sunglasses are invented1517 – First burning of Protestants at stake in Netherlands1523 – Johann Esch and Heinrich Voes become the first Lutheran martyrs, burned at the stake by Roman Catholic authorities in Brussels.1535 – Sir Thomas More goes on trial in England charged with treason1543 – England and Scotland sign Peace treaty of Greenwich1569 – Union of Lublin: The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania confirm a real union; the united country is called the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth or the Republic of Both Nations.1656 – First Quakers (Mary Fisher/Ann Austin) arrives in Boston (arrested)1663 – Birth of Franz Xaver Murschhauser, German composer and theorist (d. 1738)1674 – Spain, France and Netherlands form Triple Alliance1689 – Matsuo Basho, zen poet, leaves for 150 days journey on Honshu Japan1690 – Army of England’s Protestant King William III defeats Roman Catholic King James II in Battle of Boyne in Ireland1690 – The French defeated the forces of the Grand Alliance at Fleurus in the Netherlands.1766 – Jean-François Lefebvre de la Barre was a young French nobleman, famous for having been tortured and beheaded before his body was burnt on a pyre along with a copy of Voltaire’s “Philosophical Dictionary” nailed to his torso for the crime of not saluting a Roman Catholic religious procession in Abbeville, France.1770 – Lexell’s Comet passed closer to the Earth than any other comet in recorded history, approaching to a distance of 0.0146 a.u.1776 – First vote on Declaration of Independence1784 – Death of Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, German composer (b. 1710)1798 – Napoleon Bonaparte took Alexandria, Egypt.1804 – Birth of George Sand, French author (d. 1876)1816 – French frigate Medusa wrecked; basis of Gericault’s “Raft of the Medusa”1823 – United Provinces of Central America gain independence from Mexico1831 – Admiral James C Ross reaches magnetic North Pole1837 – A system of the civil registration of births, marriages and deaths is established in England and Wales.1847 – First U.S. postage stamps go on sale, 5 cents Franklin and 10 cents Washington, New York City1850 – At least 626 ships lie at anchor around San Francisco Bay1855 – Signing of the Quinault Treaty: The Quinault and the Quileute cede their land to the United States.1858 – Joint reading of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace’s papers on evolution to the Linnean Society.1859 – Balloon covers a record 809 miles over St. Louis1860 – Death of Charles Goodyear, American engineer (b. 1800)1861 – First public schoolhouse opens at Washington and Mason St, SF1861 – War Department decrees the KA and Tennessee are to be canvassed for volunteers1862 – Congress outlaws polygamy (First time); bad news for Utah1862 – Emperor Alexander II grants Jews right to publish books1862 – The U.S. Congress established the Bureau of Internal Revenue. Internal Revenue Law imposes First federal taxes on inheritance, tobacco and on incomes over $600 (progressive rate)1862 – Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, second daughter of Queen Victoria, marries Prince Louis of Hesse, the future Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse.1862 – The Russian State Library is founded.1863 – American Civil War: The Battle of Gettysburg begins.1863 – Free city delivery of mail begins in 49 U.S. cities; postage 3 cents per oz1863 – Keti Koti (Emancipation Day) in Suriname, marking the abolition of slavery by the Netherlands.1867 – Canada became a self-governing dominion of Great Britain. Dominion of Canada forms (New Bruns, Nova Scotia, Ontario and Quebec). The British North America Act of 1867 takes effect as the Constitution of Canada, creating the Canadian Confederation and the federal dominion of Canada; Sir John A. Macdonald is sworn in as the first Prime Minister of Canada.1869 – Birth of William Strunk, Jr., American author and educator (d. 1946)1869 – Dutch newspaper stamp tax repealed1869 – U.S. Mint at Carson City, Nevada opens1870 – James W Smith of South Carolina is First black to enter West Point1870 – The United States Department of Justice formally comes into existence.1871 – The decimal currency system is made uniform in Canada1873 – Henry Flipper of Georgia is 2nd black to enter West Point1873 – Prince Edward Island becomes 7th Canadian province1874 – First Chamber accept law against child labor1874 – First U.S. kidnapping for ransom, 4-year-old Charles Ross, $20,0001874 – The Philadelphia Zoological Society zoo opened as the first zoo in the United States.1874 – The Sholes and Glidden typewriter, the first commercially successful typewriter, goes on sale.1878 – Treaty of Berlin divides Africa up for colonization1879 – Charles Taze Russell publishes the first edition of the religious magazine The Watchtower.1881 – The world’s first international telephone call is made between St. Stephen, New Brunswick, Canada, and Calais, Maine, United States.1889 – U.S. Mint at Carson City, Nevada reopens1890 – Canada and Bermuda are linked by telegraph cable.1893 – San Francisco Bay City Club opens First U.S. bicycle race track, made of wood1896 – Death of Harriet Beecher Stowe, American author and activist (b. 1811)1897 – Three years after the first issue of “Billboard Advertising” was published, the publication was renamed, “The Billboard”.1898 – During the Spanish-American War, Theodore Roosevelt and his “Rough Riders” waged a victorious assault on San Juan Hill in Cuba.1899 – Birth of Charles Laughton, English-American actor and director (d. 1962)1899 – Birth of Thomas A. Dorsey, American pianist and composer (d. 1993)1899 – Gideon Society established to place bibles in hotels1899 – San Francisco City Hall turned over to city, after 29 years of building1902 – Start of Sherlock Holmes “Disappearance of Lady Frances Carfax”1903 – First Tour de France bicycle race begins1904 – 3rd modern Olympic games opens in St. Louis1905 – Death of John Hay, American journalist and politician, 37th United States Secretary of State (b. 1838)1905 – The USDA Forest Service was created within the Department of Agriculture. The agency was given the mission to sustain healthy, diverse, and productive forests and grasslands for present and future generations.1906 – Birth of Estée Lauder, American businesswoman, co-founded the Estée Lauder Companies (d. 2004)1907 – World’s First air force established in the U.S. Army1908 – SOS is adopted as the international distress signal.1909 – Thomas Edison began commercially manufacturing his new “A” type alkaline storage batteries.1910 – Union of South Africa becomes a dominion1911 – Proclamation removes “Dei Gratia” from Canada’s coins1912 – Birth of David Brower, American environmentalist, founded Sierra Club Foundation (d. 2000)1913 – Serbia and Greece declare war on Bulgaria1915 – Australia begins Commonwealth Lighthouse Service1915 – Australian Survey Corps becomes part of Military Forces1915 – Birth of Jean Stafford, American author (d. 1979)1915 – Birth of Willie Dixon, American singer-songwriter, musician, and producer (d. 1992)1915 – Leutnant Kurt Wintgens of the then-named German Fliegertruppe air service achieves the first known aerial victory with a synchronized machine-gun armed fighter plane, the Fokker M.5K/MG Eindecker.1916 – Coca-Cola brings current coke formula to the market1916 – The massive Allied offensive known as the Battle of the Somme began in France. The battle was the first to use tanks. On the first day of the Battle of the Somme 19,000 soldiers of the British Army are killed and 40,000 wounded.1917 – 257cm-mirror for Mount Wilson Observatory mounted1917 – Race riots in East St. Louis Illinois (40 to 200 reported killed)1919 – First class postage drops from 3 cents to 2 cents1921 – The Communist Party of China is founded.1922 – The Great Railroad Strike of 1922 begins in the United States.1923 – First permanent radio network-AT&T (WEAF New York and WMAF Mass)1923 – The Canadian Parliament suspends all Chinese immigration.1924 – Through regular transcontinental airmail service forms, New York City-SF1929 – U.S. cartoonist Elzie Segar creates “Popeye”1930 – Great Britain signs accord for Independence of Iraq1931 – Ice vending machines introduced in LA 25 lbs, 15 cents1931 – United Airlines begins service (as Boeing Air Transport).1932 – New York Governor Franklin D. Roosevelt nominated for president at Dem Convention in Chicago1932 – New York newspaper Evening Standard goes bankrupt1933 – German nazi regime decides married women shouldn’t work1934 – First x-ray photo of entire body, Rochester, New York1934 – Birth of Jamie Farr, American actor and screenwriter
The cast of M*A*S*H from Season 8 onwards (clo...
The cast of M*A*S*H from Season 8 onwards (clockwise from left): Mike Farrell, William Christopher, Jamie Farr, David Ogden Stiers, Loretta Swit, Alan Alda, Harry Morgan. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
1934 – Birth of Sydney Pollack, American actor, director, and producer (d. 2008)1934 – The Federal Communications Commission replaced the Federal Radio Commission as the regulator of broadcasting in the United States.1935 – Benny Goodman and his band recorded the “King Porter Stomp.”1937 – Britian begins using an emergency phone number (999)1939 – Birth of Delaney Bramlett, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (Delaney & Bonnie) (d. 2008)
Karen Black
Karen Black
1939 – Birth of Karen Black, American actress, singer, and screenwriter (d. 2013)1940 – Australia refuses entry to Dutch Jewish refugees1940 – In Washington, the Tacoma Narrows Bridge “Galloping Gurdie” was opened to traffic. The bridge collapsed during a wind storm on November 7, 1940.1941 – First commercial TV licenses granted-W2XBS-WNBT (NBC) and WCBW (CBS), New York City. Bulova Watch Co pays $9 for First ever network TV commercial1943 – The U.S. Government began automatically withholding federal income tax from paychecks.1943 – Tokyo City merges with Tokyo Prefecture and is dissolved. Since then, no city in Japan has had the name “Tokyo” (present-day Tokyo is not officially a city).1944 – 2500+ killed in London and South East England by German flying bombs1944 – Bretton Woods Conference starts, establishing IMF and World Bank1944 – General Eisenhower visits front in Normandy
H. R. Giger and Deborah Harry
H. R. Giger and Deborah Harry
1945 – Birth of Debbie Harry, American singer-songwriter and actress (Blondie and The Wind in the Willows)1945 – New York established the New York State Commission Against Discrimination to prevent discrimination in employment because of race, creed or natural origin. It was the first such agency in the U.S.1946 – The U.S. exploded a 20-kiloton atomic bomb near Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean.1946 – U.S. President Harry Truman signed Public Law 476 that incorporated the Civil Air Patrol as a benevolent, nonprofit organization. The Civil Air Patrol was created on December 1, 1941.1947 – British Dominion Affairs office becomes Commonwealth Relations office1947 – The Philippine Air Force is established.1948 – New York City subway fare goes to 10 cents, bus fare to 7 cents and combo fare at 12 cents1949 – Bao Dai’s Republic of Vietnam gains independence from France1949 – Birth of John Farnham, English-Australian singer-songwriter (Little River Band)1949 – The merger of two princely states of India, Cochin and Travancore, into the state of Thiru-Kochi (later re-organized as Kerala) in the Indian Union ends more than 1,000 years of princely rule by the Cochin Royal Family.1949 – WCCO TV channel 4 in Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN (CBS) begins broadcasting1950 – First 407 U.S. soldiers flown to South Korea. American ground troops arrived in South Korea to stem the tide of the advancing North Korean army.1950 – Birth of David Duke, American politician and activist1950 – New York City bus fare rises to 10 cents equal to subway fare, combo fare at 15 cents1951 – Birth of Fred Schneider, American singer-songwriter and keyboard player (The B-52’s and The Superions)1951 – Birth of Victor Willis, American singer-songwriter, pianist, and actor (Village People)1952 – Birth of Dan Aykroyd, Canadian actor, screenwriter, and producer1953 – KLAS TV channel 8 in Las Vegas, NV (CBS) begins broadcasting1956 – Elvis Presley appeared on “The Steve Allen Show.” He was told not to dance and Allen had him sing “Hound Dog” to a real basset hound wearing tails.1957 – International Geophysical Year begins, ends December 31, 19581958 – Flooding of Canada’s St. Lawrence Seaway begins.1958 – The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation links television broadcasting across Canada via microwave.1959 – Specific values for the international yard, avoirdupois pound and derived units (e.g. inch, mile and ounce) are adopted after agreement between the U.S.A., the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries.1959 – World Refugee Year begins1960 – Birth of Evelyn King, American singer1960 – British Somaliland becomes Somalia. Italian Somaliland gains independence, unites with Somali Republic1960 – Fidel Castro nationalizes Esso, Shell and Texaco in Cuba1960 – Ghana becomes a Republic and Kwame Nkrumah becomes its first President as Queen Elizabeth II ceases to be its Head of state.1960 – U.S.S.R. shoots down U.S. RB-47 reconnaissance plane1961 – Birth of Diana, Princess of Wales (d. 1997)  Britain’s Princess Diana was born Diana Spencer near Sandringham, England.1961 – British troops landed in Kuwait to aid against Iraqi threats.1961 – Haleakala National Park forms in Hawaii1961 – KNDU TV channel 25 in Richland-Pasco-Kennewick, WA (NBC) First broadcast1961 – The first community air-raid shelter was built. The shelter in Boise, ID had a capacity of 1,000 people and family memberships sold for $100.1962 – Burundi and Rwanda gain independence from Belgium (National Days)1962 – Death of Bidhan Chandra Roy, Indian physician and politician, 2nd Chief Minister of West Bengal (b. 1882)1963 – Beatles record “She Loves You” and “I’ll Get You”1963 – Birth of Roddy Bottum, American singer and keyboard player (Faith No More and Imperial Teen)1963 – President Kennedy arrives in Rome1963 – The British Government admits that former diplomat Kim Philby had worked as a Soviet agent.1963 – The U.S. postmaster introduced the five-digit ZIP (Zoning Improvement Plan) code.1965 – KUID TV channel 12 in Moscow, Idaho (PBS) begins broadcasting1966 – In San Francisco, construction crews begin tearing up Market St. to build BART1966 – Explorer 33 launched1966 – The first color television transmission in Canada takes place from Toronto.1966 – The Medicare federal insurance program went into effect.1967 – “Funny Girl” closes at Winter Garden Theater New York City after 1348 performances1967 – First British color TV broadcast, on BBC 21967 – BBC starts their World Radio Club1967 – Beatles’ “Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band,” goes #1 for 15 weeks1967 – Birth of Pamela Anderson, Canadian-American model, actress, and producer1967 – Canada celebrates the 100th anniversary of the British North America Act, 1867, which officially made Canada its own federal dominion.1967 – The European Community is formally created out of a merger with the Common Market, the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Commission.1968 – Formal separation of the United Auto Workers from the AFL–CIO.1968 – John Lennon’s First full art exhibition (You are Here)1968 – The CIA’s Phoenix Program is officially established.1968 – The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty was signed by 60 countries. It limited the spreading of nuclear material for military purposes. On May 11, 1995, the treaty was extended indefinitely.1968 – U.S.S.R. performs underground nuclear test1969 – Britain’s Prince Charles was invested as the Prince of Wales.1969 – John and Yoko are hospitalized after a car crash1969 – Shelby Singleton buys Sun Records from Sam Phillips1970 – Jimi Hendrix First recording session (New York City)1971 – Birth of Missy Elliott, American rapper, producer, dancer, and actress1971 – British and Argentina sign accord about Falkland Islands1971 – Golden Gate Bridge paid for1971 – State of Washington becomes First state to ban sex discrimination1972 – “Follies” closes at Winter Garden Theater New York City after 524 performances1972 – “Hair” closes at Biltmore Theater New York City after 1750 performances1972 – Ms. magazine begins publishing1972 – The first Gay Pride march in England takes place.1973 – “Jesus Christ Superstar” closes at Mark Hellinger New York City after 711 performances1974 – First Laura Ashley-store in U.S. opens in San Francisco1974 – Isabel Peron became the president of Argentina upon the death of her husband, Juan.1975 – Muhammad Ali beats Joe Bugner in 15 for heavyweight boxing title1975 – Birth of Scott Emerson, American author.1976 – Death of Anneliese Michel, German woman who was said to be possessed by demons (b. 1952)1976 – Kenneth Gibson, is First black president of U.S. Conference of Mayors1976 – Portugal grants autonomy to Madeira.1977 – Birth of Liv Tyler, American actress and model1978 – Former President Nixon makes First public speech since resigning in 19741978 – The Northern Territory in Australia is granted Self-Government.1979 – Sony introduced the Walkman.1979 – Stampede Pass, Washington is covered with 6″ of snow1979 – Susan B. Anthony was commemorated on a U.S. coin, the Susan B. Anthony dollar.1980 – “O Canada” officially becomes the national anthem of Canada.1980 – U.S. President Jimmy Carter signed legislation that provided for 2 acres of land near the Lincoln Memorial for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial.1981 – Death of Rushton Moreve, American bass player and songwriter (Steppenwolf) (b. 1948)1981 – Laurel Canyon California murders (4 die, 1 wounded) The Wonderland murders occurred in the early morning hours, allegedly masterminded by businessman and drug dealer Eddie Nash.1981 – Radio Shack 3rd release of Model III TRSDOS 1.31981 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that candidates for federal office had an “affirmative right” to go on national television.1982 – 2,100 Unification church couples wed in New York City1982 – ABC national music radio network scheduled premiere (never happened)1982 – Kosmos 1383, First search and rescue satellite, launched1983 – A North Korean Ilyushin Il-62M jet en route to Conakry Airport in Guinea crashes into the Fouta Djallon mountains in Guinea-Bissau, killing all 23 people on board.1983 – Death of Buckminster Fuller, American architect, designed the Montreal Biosphère (b. 1895)1984 – The album “Animalize” was released by KISS.1984 – The Motion Picture Association of America established the “PG-13” rating.1987 – Death of Snakefinger, English singer-songwriter and guitarist (The Residents and Chilli Willi and the Red Hot Peppers) (b. 1949)1987 – John Kevin Hill, at age 11, became the youngest to fly across the U.S. when he landed at National Airport in Washington, DC.1989 – Hugh Hefner (Playboy editor) weds playmate Kimberly Conrad1989 – The Montreal Protocol, an international treaty, went into effect. It limited the production of ozone-destroying chemicals.1990 – German reunification: East Germany accepts the Deutsche Mark as its currency, thus uniting the economies of East and West Germany.1990 – In Victoria, Australia, helmetless bike riding becomes illegal1991 – Court TV began airing.1991 – Death of Michael Landon, American actor, director, and producer (b. 1936)1991 – President George H.W. Bush nominated federal appeals court judge Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court.1991 – The Warsaw Pact is officially dissolved at a meeting in Prague.1992 – 6.6 earthquake in Big Bear Valley of Los Angeles1993 – 1 second is added to the clock1993 – Russian manned space craft TM-17, launches into orbit1993 – STS-57 (Endeavour) lands1994 – Soyuz TM-19 launches1994 – Yasser Arafat of the Palestinian Liberation Organization visited the Gaza Strip.1995 – “Kiss of the Spider Woman” closes at Broadhurst New York City after 906 performances1995 – Death of Ian Parkin, English rock guitarist (Be-Bop Deluxe) (b. 1950)1995 – Death of Wolfman Jack, American radio host (b. 1938)1996 – Death of Margaux Hemingway, American actress and model (b. 1954)1996 – Placido Domingo becomes art director of Washington Opera1997 – Death of Charles Werner, American cartoonist (b. 1909)1997 – Death of Robert Mitchum, American actor and singer (b. 1917)1997 – Nevada Athletic Commission suspends Mike Tyson for biting Holyfield1997 – STS-94 (Columbia 23) launches into orbit1997 – The sovereignty over Hong Kong was transferred from Great Britain to China. Britain had controlled Hong Kong as a colony for 156 years.1999 – Death of Forrest Mars, Sr., American businessman, created M&M’s and the Mars bar (b. 1904)1999 – The Scottish Parliament is officially opened by Elizabeth II on the day that legislative powers are officially transferred from the old Scottish Office in London to the new devolved Scottish Executive in Edinburgh.1999 – The U.S. Justice Department released new regulations that granted the attorney general sole power to appoint and oversee special counsels. The 1978 independent-counsel statute expired on June 30.2000 – Death of Walter Matthau, American actor and singer (b. 1920)2000 – Vermont’s civil unions law went into effect, granting gay couples most of the rights, benefits and responsibilities of marriage.2002 – The International Criminal Court is established to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression.2003 – Death of Herbie Mann, American flute player (b. 1930)2004 – Death of Marlon Brando, American actor (b. 1924)2004 – Saturn orbit insertion of Cassini–Huygens begins at 01:12 UTC and ends at 02:48 UTC.2005 – Death of Luther Vandross, American singer-songwriter and producer (Change) (b. 1951)2005 – Death of Renaldo Benson, American singer-songwriter (Four Tops) (b. 1936)2007 – Smoking in England is banned in all public indoor spaces.2008 – Death of Mel Galley, English guitarist (Whitesnake, Trapeze, Finders Keepers, and Phenomena) (b. 1948)2008 – Rioting erupted in Mongolia in response to allegations of fraud surrounding the 2008 legislative elections.2009 – Death of Karl Malden, American actor (b. 1912)2009 – Sweden takes over the presidency of the European Union2010 – In volume, BP’s Deepwater Horizon oil spill has overtaken Ixtoc I to become the worst oceanic oil spill in U.S. recorded history2011 – In Libya’s capitol of Tripoli, Muammar Gaddafi calls on NATO to stop its bombing campaign or else European homes offices and families will be targeted2011 – In Minnesota, a three-week state government shutdown began after legislators could not agree on a budget.2011 – Prince Albert II of Monaco weds Olympic swimmer Charlene Wittstock at the royal palace; Wittstock is now known as Her Serene Highness, Princess Charlene2012 – Death of Alan G. Poindexter, American captain, pilot, and astronaut (b. 1961)2012 – Soyuz, a spacecraft originally designed for the Soviet space program, lands safely in Kazakhstan, with Oleg Kononenko of Russia, Andre Kuipers of the Netherlands, and Don Pettit of the United States, onboard2013 – America commemorates the 150th of the Battle of Gettysburg, a decisive battle in the Civil War2013 – Croatia becomes the 28th member of the European Union.2013 – Death of Charles Foley, American game designer, co-created Twister (b. 1930)2013 – Neptune’s moon S/2004 N 1 is discovered.2013 – The oldest European remains of a white man are discovered in Australia; the Manning River Skull may belong to a man born in 1650, predating the country’s history that Captain James Cook was the first to land on Australia’s east coast in 1770

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