TODAY June 26 – Sunni’s History Notes

Holidays and observances
  • Chocolate Pudding Day
  • Beautician’s Day
  • Canoe Day
  • Army and Navy Day (Azerbaijan)
  • Flag Day (Romania)
  • Independence Day, celebrates the independence of Madagascar from France in 1960
  • International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking (International)
  • International Day in Support of Victims of Torture (International)
  • Sunthorn Phu Day (Thailand)
 221 – Roman Emperor Elagabalus adopts his cousin Alexander Severus as his heir and receives the title of Caesar.363 – Death of Julian, Roman emperor (b. 332) Roman Emperor Julian is killed during the retreat from the Sassanid Empire. General Jovian is proclaimed Emperor by the troops on the battlefield.684 – St. Benedict II begins his reign as Catholic Pope699 – En no Ozuno, a Japanese mystic and apothecary who will later be regarded as the founder of a folk religion Shugend?, is banished to Izu ?shima.1096 – Peter the Hermit’s crusaders forced their way across Sava, Hungary.1243 – The Seljuk Turkish army in Asia Minor was wiped out by the Mongols.1284 – Pied Piper lures 130 children of Hamelin away (actually happened)1409 – Western Schism: The Roman Catholic church is led into a double schism as Petros Philargos is crowned Pope Alexander V after the Council of Pisa, joining Pope Gregory XII in Rome and Pope Benedict XII in Avignon.1483 – Duke of Gloucester appoints himself English king Richard III1498 – Toothbrush invented1541 – Death of Francisco Pizarro, Spanish conquistador (b. 1471) Francisco Pizarro is assassinated in Lima by the son of his former companion and later antagonist, Diego Almagro the younger. Almagro is later caught and executed.1553 – Christ’s Hospital in England granted a charter1582 – Birth of Johannes Schultz, German composer (d. 1653)1714 – Spain and Netherlands sign peace/trade agreement1718 – Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich of Russia, Peter the Great’s son, mysteriously dies after being sentenced to death by his father for plotting against him.1721 – Dr. Zabdiel Boylston gives First smallpox inoculations in America1730 – Birth of Charles Messier, French astronomer (d. 1817)1740 – A combined force Spanish, free blacks and allied Indians defeat a British garrison at the Siege of Fort Mose near St. Augustine during the War of Jenkins’ Ear.1797 – Charles Newbold patents First cast-iron plow. He can’t sell it to farmers, though, they fear effects of iron on soil.1804 – The Lewis and Clark Expedition reached the mouth of the Kansas River after completing a westward trek of nearly 400 river miles.1807 – Lightning hits gunpowder warehouse in Luxembourg; 230 die1810 – Death of Joseph-Michel Montgolfier, French inventor, co-invented the hot air balloon (b. 1740)1819 – The bicycle was patented by W.K. Clarkson, Jr.1830 – Death of George IV of the United Kingdom (b. 1762)1839 – Birth of Sam Watkins, American soldier and author (d. 1901)1843 – Hong Kong proclaimed a British Crown Colony1844 – John Tyler took Julia Gardiner as his bride, thus becoming the first U.S. President to marry while in office.1848 – First pure food law enacted in U.S.1870 – The Christian holiday of Christmas is declared a federal holiday in the United States.1870 – The first section of the boardwalk in Atlantic City, NJ, was opened to the public.1870 – Wagner’s opera “Valkyrie” premieres in Munich1886 – Henri Moissan isolated elemental Fluorine for the first time.1892 – Birth of Pearl S. Buck, American author, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1973)1894 – Karl Benz of Germany receives U.S. patent for gasoline-driven auto1894 – The American Railway Union, led by Eugene Debs, called a general strike in sympathy with Pullman workers.1896 – First movie theater in U.S. opens, charging 10 cents for admission1900 – A commission that included Dr. Walter Reed began the fight against the deadly disease yellow fever.1900 – The United States announced that it would send troops to fight against the Boxer rebellion in China.1902 – Start of Sherlock Holmes “Adventure of 3 Garidebs”1904 – Birth of Peter Lorre, Slovak-American actor (d. 1964)
Frame from the 1941 public domain trailer for ...
Frame from the 1941 public domain trailer for the Warner Bros. film The Maltese Falcon showing Sydney Greenstreet as Kasper Gutman and Peter Lorre as Joel Cairo. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
1905 – Birth of Lynd Ward, American author and illustrator (d. 1985)1906 – 1906 French Grand Prix, the first Grand Prix motor racing event held. Hongar Szisz wins First Grand-Prix (Le Mans, France)1907 – Bolsheviks overthrows transport in Tiflis The 1907 Tiflis bank robbery took place in Yerevan Square, now Freedom Square, Tbilisi. Russia’s nobility demanded drastic measures to be taken against revolutionaries.1908 – Shah Muhammad Ali’s forces squelched the reform elements of Parliament in Persia.1909 – Birth of Colonel Tom Parker, Dutch-American talent manager (d. 1997)1909 – Birth of Wolfgang Reitherman, German-American animator, director, and producer (d. 1985)1909 – The Science Museum in London comes into existence as an independent entity.1909 – Victoria and Albert Museum opens in London1910 – First federal corrupt election practices law passed1913 – Birth of Maurice Wilkes, English computer scientist (d. 2010)1915 – Germany suppresses its “Vorwarts” newspaper after it called for peace1916 – Birth of Virginia Satir, American psychotherapist and author (d. 1988)1917 – General John “Black Jack” Pershing arrived in France with the American Expeditionary Force. The first U.S. troops to arrive in France to fight alongside Britain and France against Germany in World War I.1918 – World War I, Western Front: Battle for Belleau Wood – Allied Forces under John J. Pershing and James Harbord defeat Imperial German Forces under Wilhelm, German Crown Prince.1919 – The New York Daily News was first published.1921 – Birth of Violette Szabo, French secret agent (d. 1945)1924 – After 8 years of occupation, U.S. troops leave Dominican Republic1924 – Ziegfeld Follies opens on Broadway1925 – Charlie Chaplin’s comedy, “The Gold Rush,” premiered in Hollywood.1926 – A memorial to the first U.S. troops in France was unveiled at St. Nazaire.1927 – Comet 7P/Pons-Winnecke approaches within 0.0394 AUs of Earth1927 – The Cyclone roller coaster opens on Coney Island.1929 – Birth of Milton Glaser, American graphic designer
Colin Wilson, British author, Goran Haven, Cor...
Colin Wilson, British author, Goran Haven, Cornwall, 1984 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
1931 – Birth of Colin Wilson, English philosopher and author (d. 2013)1933 – “The Kraft Music Hall” debuted on NBC radio.1934 – Birth of Dave Grusin, American pianist and composer1934 – Germany and Poland sign no-attack treaty1934 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Federal Credit Union Act, which establishes credit unions.1935 – Work service for recent graduate obligatory in Germany1936 – Initial flight of the Focke-Wulf Fw 61, the first practical helicopter.1938 – Birth of Billy Davis, Jr., American singer (The 5th Dimension)1938 – Birth of Neil Abercrombie, American politician, 7th Governor of Hawaii1939 – Death of Ford Madox Ford, English author, poet, and critic (b. 1873)1940 – End of U.S.S.R. experimental calendar; Gregorian readopted 6/271940 – World War II: Under the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, the Soviet Union presents an ultimatum to Romania requiring it to cede Bessarabia and the northern part of Bukovina.1941 – Lithuanian fascist massacre 2,300 Jews in Kovno1941 – World War II: Soviet planes bomb Kassa, Hungary (now Košice, Slovakia), giving Hungary the impetus to declare war the next day.1942 – The Grumman F6F Hellcat fighter was flown for the first time.1944 – Birth of Arthur Doyle, American singer-songwriter, saxophonist, and flute player (d. 2014)1945 – The United Nations charter was signed by 50 countries in San Francisco.1948 – Shirley Jackson’s short story The Lottery is published in The New Yorker magazine.1948 – The Berlin Airlift began in earnest as the United States, Britain and France began ferrying supplies to the isolated western sector of Berlin after the Soviet Union cut off land and water routes.1948 – William Shockley files the original patent for the grown junction transistor, the first bipolar junction transistor.1949 – First Belgian parliamentary election where women can vote (CVP gains)1950 – President Harry S. Truman authorized the Air Force and Navy to enter the Korean conflict.1951 – The Soviet Union proposed a cease-fire in the Korean War.1952 – Nelson Mandela and 51 others infringe South Africa curfew1955 – Birth of Mick Jones, English singer-songwriter and guitarist (The Clash, Big Audio Dynamite, General Public, Carbon/Silicon, and London SS)
Mick Jones
Cover of Mick Jones
1955 – The South African Congress Alliance adopts the Freedom Charter at the Congress of the People in Kliptown.1956 – Birth of Chris Isaak, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and actor
Patty Smyth "The Warrior" - 1984
Patty Smyth “The Warrior” – 1984
1957 – Birth of Patty Smyth, American singer-songwriter (Scandal)1958 – Mackinac Straits Bridge, Michigan dedicated1958 – Vanguard SLV-2 launched for Earth orbit (failed)1959 – CBS journalist Edward R. Murrow interviewed Lee Remick. It was his 500th and final guest on “Person to Person.”1959 – Queen Elizabeth and President Eisenhower open St. Lawrence Seaway opening North America’s Great Lakes to ocean-going ships.1960 – British Somaliland (now Somalia) gains independence from Britain1960 – Hall of Fame allows veteran committee to vote annually1960 – Italian Somaliland declares independence from Italian-administration1960 – Madagascar (formerly Malagasy Rep) declares independence from France1961 – A Kuwaiti vote opposed Iraq’s annexation plans.1961 – Birth of Terri Nunn, American singer and actress (Berlin)1963 – Birth of Harriet Wheeler, English singer (The Sundays)1963 – Birth of Richard Garfield, American game designer, created Magic: The Gathering1963 – Dutch 2nd Chamber condemns commercial TV1963 – U.S. President John F. Kennedy gave his “Ich bin ein Berliner” speech, underlining the support of the United States for democratic West Germany shortly after Soviet-supported East Germany erected the Berlin Wall.1964 – Blacks and Whites riot over racial segregation in St. Augustine1964 – The album, “A Hard Day’s Night,” was released by The Beatles.1968 – Iwo Jima and Bonin Islands returned to Japan by US1969 – Birth of Colin Greenwood, English bass player and songwriter (Radiohead)1971 – “Man of La Mancha” closes at ANTA Washington Square Theater New York City after 2329 performances1971 ­ Birth of Bob Ford, American author, designer and artist.1971 – The U.S. Justice Department issued a warrant for Daniel Ellsberg, accusing him of giving away the Pentagon Papers.1973 – At Plesetsk Cosmodrome nine people are killed in an explosion of a Cosmos 3-M rocket.1973 – Former White House counsel John W. Dean told the Senate Watergate Committee about an “enemies list” kept by the Nixon White House.1973 – London production of “Grease” premieres1974 – Birth of Derek Jeter, American baseball player1974 – The Universal Product Code is scanned for the first time to sell a package of Wrigley’s chewing gum at the Marsh Supermarket in Troy, Ohio1975 – Cher divorces Sonny Bono1975 – Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declared a state of emergency due to “deep and widespread conspiracy.”1975 – Two FBI agents and a member of the American Indian Movement are killed in a shootout on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota; Leonard Peltier is later convicted of the murders in a controversial trial.1976 – The CN (Canadian National) Tower in Toronto, Canada, opened.1977 – 42 die in fire inmate causes at Maury County Jail in Columbia, Tennessee1977 – Elvis Presley performs the final concert of his life in Indianapolis, Indiana.1977 – The Yorkshire Ripper kills 16 year old shop assistant Jayne MacDonald in Leeds, changing public perception of the killer as she is the first victim who is not a prostitute.1978 – Air Canada Flight 189 to Toronto overruns the runway and crashes into the Etobicoke Creek ravine. Two of 107 passengers on board perish.1978 – First dedicated oceanographic satellite, SEASAT 1, launched1979 – Birth of Ryan Tedder, American singer-songwriter, pianist, and producer (OneRepublic)1979 – Muhammad Ali, at 37 years old, announced that he was retiring as world heavyweight boxing champion.1979 – Rocker Nigel Olsson runs a stop sign, crashes and kills a driver1980 – Birth of Michael Vick, American football player1981 – “For Your Eyes Only” premieres in U.S.1981 – In Mountain Home, Idaho, Virginia Campbell took her coupons and rebates and bought $26,460 worth of groceries. She only paid 67 cents after all the discounts.1982 – U.S. vetos United Nations Security Council resolution for a limited withdrawal from Beirut of Israeli and Palestine Liberation Organization forces1983 ­ Birth of Marshal Popham, American author and journalist.1984 – First flight of Shuttle Discovery (41-D) scrubbed at T -41985 – The album, “Big River” became the first soundtrack album to be recorded in Nashville, TN.1985 – Wilbur Snapp was ejected after playing “Three Blind Mice” during a baseball game. The incident followed a call made by umpire Keith O’Connor.1986 – James Hetfield (Metallica) broke his wrist while trying to skateboard down a hill. One show was cancelled and the remainder of dates on the tour James was on vocals only and John Marshall (later with Metal Church) was on guitar.1987 – Supreme Court Justice Lewis F. Powell, Jr. announces his retirement1989 – Canada updates coins with a new potrait of the Queen1990 – 122 degrees F in Phoenix, Arizona1990 – 8 KS and OK radio stations boycott k d lang, due to her anti-meat ad1990 – New Kid on the Block Donnie Wahlberg release from hospital after fall1990 – President George H.W. Bush, who had campaigned for office on a pledge of “no new taxes,” conceded that tax increases would have to be included in any deficit-reduction package.1991 – ANC leader Nelson Mandela addresses congress1992 – India leases Tin Bigha corridor to Bangladesh1992 – New York City’s Metropolitan Transportation Authority votes to ban cigarette ads on Jan 1, 19931992 – Supreme Court rules fund soliciting can be banned at airports1993 – “Late Night with David Letterman” airs for last time on NBC-TV1993 – Actress Julia Roberts and country singer Lyle Lovett wed1993 – Clinton orders cruise missle strike on Iraqi secret service in Baghdad1994 – 104 degrees F (40 degrees C) at Denver Colorado1994 – 107 degrees F (41.6 degrees C) at Albuquerque New Mexico1994 – 112 degrees F (44.4 degrees C) at El Paso Texas1994 – 122 degrees F (50 degrees C) at Laughlin Nevada1994 – 126 degrees F (52.2 degrees C) in Death Valley California1994 – Death of Jahanara Imam, Bangladeshi author and activist (b. 1929)1994 – PLO-leader Yasser Arafat returns to Gaza after 27 years1996 – The U.S. Supreme Court ordered the Virginia Military Institute to admit women or forgo state support.1997 – Galileo, Ganymede Observations, Orbit 91997 – The U.S. Supreme Court struck down the Communications Decency Act of 1996 that made it illegal to distribute indecent material on the Internet.1997 – The U.S. Supreme Court upheld state laws that allow for a ban on doctor-assisted suicides.1998 – At 10 a.m. PDT, Marcy Playground debuted the video for “Saint Joe On The Schoolbus,” on the Internet.1998 – Stefano Salvati sued Madonna, claiming that her “Ray of Light” video was stolen from a clip he shot in 1994 for Italian pop star Biagio Antonacci.1998 – The U.S. and Peru open school to train commandos to patrol Peru’s rivers for drug traffickers.1998 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that employers are always potentially liable for supervisor’s sexual misconduct toward an employee.2000 – Indonesia’s President Abdurrahman Wahid declared a state of emergency in the Moluccas due to the escalation of fighting between Christians and Muslims.2000 – The Human Genome Project and Celera Genomics Corp. jointly announced that they had created a working draft of the human genome.2001 – Death of Soccer, American dog actor (b. 1988)2002 – David Hasseloff checked into The Betty Ford Center for treatment of alcoholism.2002 – Death of Arnold Brown, English-Canadian 11th General of The Salvation Army (b. 1913)2002 – Death of Jay Berwanger, American football player (b. 1914)2002 – WorldCom Inc. filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.2003 – Death of Denis Thatcher, English soldier and businessman (b. 1915)2003 – Death of Denver Randleman, American sergeant (b. 1920)2003 – Death of Marc-Vivien Foé, Cameroon footballer (b. 1975)2003 – Death of Strom Thurmond, American general, lawyer, and politician, 103rd Governor of South Carolina (b. 1902) Strom Thurmond, the second longest-serving senator in U.S. history, died in Edgefield, S.C., at age 100.2003 – The Supreme Court, in a 6-3 decision, struck down state bans on gay sex. The U.S. Supreme Court rules in Lawrence v. Texas that gender-based sodomy laws are unconstitutional.2007 – Death of Liz Claiborne, Belgian-American fashion designer, founded Liz Claiborne (b. 1929)2008 – The Supreme Court struck down a handgun ban in the District of Columbia as it affirmed, 5-4, an individual right to gun ownership.2010 – Leaders of the twenty largest economies meet for the 2010 G-20 Summit in Toronto, Canada2011 – The ash cloud from the 2011 Puyehue-Cordon Caulle eruption closes 39 flights in Chile and Argentina2011 – The E.coli strain that caused 46 deaths in Germany reportedly resurfaced in France, with eight people hospitalized in Bordeaux2012 – In an attempt to encourage people to buy from their local bookstores, novelist and Pulitzer Prize-winner Richard Russo boycotts e-books2012 – The Waldo Canyon Fire descends into the Mountain Shadows neighborhood in Colorado Springs burning 347 homes in a matter of hours and killing two people.2012 – Wangdue Phodrang Dzong, the four thousand year-old ridge-top monastery in Bhutan catches fire and is destroyed; no relics were lost in the fire because the monastery was under renovation2013 – The Supreme Court ruled that married same-sex couples were entitled to federal benefits and that same-sex marriages were allowed in California in a pair of major victories for the gay rights movement.???? – Birth of Andrew Migliore, founder of Lurker Films and H. P. Lovecraft Film Festival and CthulhuCon???? – Birth of Bernard Xolotl, American artist (living in Nepal)???? – Birth of Brooke London, Canadian author. 

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