TODAY June 25 – Sunni’s History Notes

Holidays and observances
  • Color TV Day
  • National Strawberry Parfait Day
  • Arbor Day (Philippines)
  • Presentation of the Augsburg Confession (Lutheran)
  • Philipp Melanchthon (Lutheran)
  • Independence Day (Mozambique)
  • National Catfish Day (United States)
  • Statehood Day (Croatia)
  • Statehood Day (Slovenia)
  • Statehood Day (Virginia)
 253 – St. Lucius I begins his reign as Catholic Pope841 – Charles the Bald and Louis the German defeated Lothar at Fontenay.1080 – At Brixen, a council of bishops declared Pope Gregory to be deposed and Archbishop Guibert as antipope Clement III.1096 – First Crusade slaughter Jews of Werelinghofen Germany1134 – Death of Niels, King of Denmark (b. 1064)1533 – Death of Mary Tudor, Queen of France (b. 1496)1580 – The Book of Concord was first published. The book is a collection of doctrinal standards of the Lutheran Church.1607 – Mentally ill emperor Rudolf II signs Treaty of Lieben, giving up Austria, Hungary and Moravia1630 – The fork is introduced to American dining by Governor Winthrop1638 – Lunar eclipse is First astronomical event recorded in U.S.1667 – Dr. Jean-Baptiste Denys, French doctor, performs First blood transfusion1672 – First recorded monthly Quaker meeting in U.S. held, Sandwich, Mass1678 – Venetian Elena Cornaro Piscopia is the first woman awarded a doctorate of philosophy when she graduates from the University of Padua.1767 – Mexican Indians rioted as Jesuit priests were ordered home.1788 – Virginia ratified the U.S. Constitution and became the 10th state of the United States.1798 – U.S. passes Alien Act allowing president to deport dangerous aliens1814 – Birth of Gabriel Auguste Daubrée, French geologist (d. 1896)1834 – Pope Gregory XVI’s encyclical “Singulari nos” published1852 – Birth of Antoni Gaudí, Spanish architect, designed the Park Güell (d. 1926)
casa batlló 01 - Gaudí
casa batlló 01 – Gaudí (Photo credit: ferran pestaña)
1863 – U.S. General George Meade replaces General Hooker to be more aggressive1864 – Horse tramway at the Hague, opens1864 – Union troops surrounding Petersburg, VA, began building a mine tunnel underneath the Confederate lines.1867 – Lucien B. Smith patented the first barbed wire.1868 – Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina were readmitted to the Union.1868 – The U.S. Congress enacted legislation granting an eight-hour day to workers employed by the Federal government.1870 – In Spain, Queen Isabella abdicated in favor of Alfonso XII.1876 – Lt. Col. Custer and the 210 men of U.S. 7th Cavalry were killed by Sioux and Cheyenne Indians at Little Big Horn in Montana. The event is known as “Custer’s Last Stand.”1877 – In Philadelphia, PA, Alexander Graham Bell demonstrated the telephone for Sir William Thomson (Baron Kelvin) and Emperor Pedro II of Brazil at the Centennial Exhibition.1886 – Arturo Toscanini conducted the Rio de Janeiro Orchestra and “Aida.”1900 – Birth of Louis Mountbatten, First Earl Mountbatten of Burma, English admiral and politician, 44th Governor-General of India (d. 1979)1900 – The Taoist monk Wang Yuanlu discovers the Dunhuang manuscripts, a cache of ancient texts that are of great historical and religious significance, in the Mogao Caves of Dunhuang, China.
English: Picture of George Orwell which appear...
English: Picture of George Orwell which appears in an old acreditation for the BNUJ. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
1903 – Birth of George Orwell, English author (d. 1950)1906 – Death of Stanford White, American architect, designed the Washington Square Arch (b. 1853) Pittsburgh millionaire Harry Kendall Thaw, the son of coal and railroad baron William Thaw, shot and killed Stanford White. White, a prominent architect, had a tryst with Florence Evelyn Nesbit before she married Thaw. The shooting took place at the premeire of Mamzelle Champagne in New York.1910 – Igor Stravinsky’s ballet The Firebird is premiered in Paris, bringing him to prominence as a composer.1910 – The U.S. Congress authorized the use of postal savings stamps.1910 – The United States Congress passes the Mann Act, which prohibits interstate transport of females for “immoral purposes”; the ambiguous language would be used to selectively prosecute people for years to come.1913 – American Civil War veterans begin arriving at the Great Reunion of 1913.1917 – WWI: The first American fighting troops landed in France.1919 – First advanced monoplane airliner flight (Junkers F13)1920 – League of Nations places International head of Justice in Hague1923 – Capt. Lowell H. Smith and Lt. John P. Richter perform the first ever aerial refueling in a DH-4B biplane1924 – Birth of Sidney Lumet, American director, producer, and screenwriter (d. 2011)1928 – Birth of Alex Toth, American animator (d. 2006) His work included Super Friends, Space Ghost, The Herculoids, and Birdman. Toth’s work has been resurrected in the late-night, adult-themed spinoffs on Cartoon Network: Space Ghost: Coast to Coast, Sealab 2021, and Harvey Birdman, Attorney at Law
Space Ghost, one of Toth's most famous designs.
Space Ghost, one of Toth’s most famous designs. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
1928 – Birth of Peyo, Belgian author and illustrator, created The Smurfs (d. 1992)1929 – Birth of Eric Carle, American author and illustrator1929 – President Hoover authorizes building of Boulder Dam, Hoover Dam1931 – Birth of V. P. Singh, Indian politician, 7th Prime Minister of India (d. 2008)1935 – Birth of Charles Sheffield, English-American mathematician, physicist, and author (d. 2002)1938 – “A Tisket A Tasket” by Ella Fitzgerald with Chick Webb hits #11938 – Federal minimum wage law guarantees workers 40 cents per hour1938 – Gaelic scholar Dr. Douglas Hyde was inaugurated as the first president of the Irish Republic.1940 – Adolf Hitler views Eiffel tower and grave of Napoleon in France1940 – Birth of Clint Warwick, English bass player (The Moody Blues) (d. 2004)1941 – Franklin D. Roosevelt issues Executive Order 8802 forbidding discrimination1941 – Germans invade Dubno Poland, giving permission to Ukrainians to do whatever they want to 12,000 Jews living there1942 – General Dwight Eisenhower appointed commander of U.S. forces in Europe1943 – The Holocaust: Jews in the Cz?stochowa Ghetto in Poland stage an uprising against the Nazis.1944 – The final page of the comic Krazy Kat was published, exactly two months after its author George Herriman died.1945 – Birth of Carly Simon, American singer-songwriter, actress, and author (Elephant’s Memory)1946 – Birth of Allen Lanier, American guitarist and songwriter (Blue Öyster Cult) (d. 2013)
Ian McDonald
Cover of Ian McDonald
1946 – Birth of Ian McDonald, English guitarist and saxophonist (King Crimson and Foreigner)1946 – Ho Chi Minh traveled to France for talks on Vietnamese independence.1947 – Birth of Jimmie Walker, American actor1947 – Tennis shoe introduced1947 – The Diary of a Young Girl (better known as The Diary of Anne Frank) is published.1948 – Truman signs Displaced Persons Bill (205,000 Europeans to U.S.)1949 – Long-Haired Hare, starring Bugs Bunny, is released in theaters.1950 – The Korean War begins with the invasion of South Korea by North Korea. U.N. member states begin using integrated forces against North Korea1951 – In New York, the first regular commercial color TV transmissions were presented on CBS using the FCC-approved CBS Color System. The public did not own color TV’s at the time.1952 – Birth of Martin Gerschwitz, German singer-songwriter and keyboard player (Iron Butterfly)1952 – Birth of Tim Finn, New Zealand singer-songwriter (Finn Brothers, Crowded House, and Split Enz)1953 – First passenger to fly commercially around the world < 100 hours1953 – 86 degrees F in Anchorage Alaska1954 – Birth of Sonia Sotomayor, American jurist, associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court1955 – “Can Can” closes at Shubert Theater New York City after 892 performances1955 – “Imogene Coca Show,” last airs on NBC-TV1959 – Death of Charles Starkweather, American spree killer (b. 1938)1959 – The Cuban government seized 2.35 million acres under a new agrarian reform law.1960 – Madagascar gains independence of France1960 – Two cryptographers working for the United States National Security Agency left for vacation to Mexico, and from there defected to the Soviet Union.1962 – The Supreme Court ruled that the use of an unofficial, nondenominational prayer in New York public schools was unconstitutional.1963 – Birth of George Michael, English singer-songwriter, producer, and actor (Wham!)1963 – John F. Kennedy speaks at Pauls Church in Frankfurt1964 – Prince A. Taylor becomes First black methodist bishop, New Jersey1964 – U.S. President Lyndon Johnson ordered 200 naval personnel to Mississippi to assist in finding three missing civil rights workers.1964 – WMCA (New York City) plays Beatles’ Hard Days Night Album (10 days prior to its scheduled release date), they decide to release it June 26th1966 – Beatles’ “Paperback Writer,” single goes #1 and stays #1 for 2 weeks1966 – Kosmos 122, First Soviet weather satellite, launched1967 – Broadcasting of the first live global satellite television program: 400 million watch Beatles “Our World” TV special. The Beatles recorded “All You Need Is Love” live on the “Our World” program.1967 – KPBS TV channel 15 in San Diego, California (PBS) begins broadcasting1969 – Mick Taylor made his first concert appearance with the Rolling Stones after he had replaced Brian Jones.1969 – The Hollies recorded “He Ain’t Heavy, He’s My Brother,” with Elton John playing piano.1970 – The U.S. Federal Communications Commission handed down a ruling (35 FR 7732), making it illegal for radio stations to put telephone calls on the air without the permission of the person being called.1973 – Former White House Counsel John Dean began testifying before the Senate Watergate Committee. He admitted that U.S. President Nixon took part in the Watergate cover-up.1975 – Mozambique gains independence from Portugal (National Day) Samora Machel was sworn in as president after 477 years of Portuguese rule.1975 – Prime Minister Indira Gandhi has a state of internal Emergency declared in India.1976 – Death of Johnny Mercer, American singer-songwriter, co-founded Capitol Records (b. 1909)1976 – Missouri Governor Kit Bond issues an executive order rescinding the Extermination Order, formally apologizing on behalf of the state of Missouri for the suffering it had caused to the members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.1977 – Roy C. Sullivan of Virginia is struck by lightning for 7th time1978 – The rainbow flag representing gay pride is flown for the first time in the San Francisco Gay Freedom Day Parade.1981 – Microsoft is restructured to become an incorporated business in its home state of Washington.1981 – The U.S. Supreme Court decided that male-only draft registration was constitutional.1982 – Greece abolishes the head shaving of recruits in the military.1982 – Secretary of State Alexander Haig, Jr. resigns, replaced by George Schultz1983 – “Evita” closes at Broadway Theater New York City after 1568 performances1984 – Patti Scialfa joined Bruce Springsteen’s E Street Band.1984 – STS-41-D launch attempt scrubbed because of computer problem1984 – The soundtrack “Purple Rain” was released five weeks ahead of the film.1985 – ABC’s “Monday Night Football” began with a new line-up. The trio was Frank Gifford, Joe Namath and O.J. Simpson.1985 – Fireworks factory near Hallett, OK explodes, 21 die1986 – The U.S. Congress approved $100 million in aid to the Contras fighting in Nicaragua.1987 – Austrian President Kurt Waldheim visited Pope John Paul II at the Vatican. The meeting was controversial due to allegations that Waldheim had hidden his Nazi past.1988 – Death of Hillel Slovak, Israeli-American guitarist and songwriter (Red Hot Chili Peppers and What Is This?) (b. 1962)1989 – First U.S. postmark dedicated to Lesbian and Gay Pride1990 – 120 degrees F in Phoenix, Arizona1990 – NBC decides to air episodes of “Quantum Leap” for 5 straight days1990 – Supreme Court rules family members cannot end lives of comatose relatives unless those relatives previously made their wishes known. The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the right of an individual, whose wishes are clearly made, to refuse life-sustaining medical treatment. “The right to die” decision was made in the Curzan vs. Missouri case.1991 – Croatia and Slovenia declare their independence from Yugoslavia.1991 – Martina Navratilova wins record 100th singles match at Wimbledon1991 – The last Soviet troops left Czechoslovakia 23 years after the Warsaw Pact invasion.1992 – “Les Miserables,” opens at Vinorhady Theatre, Prague1992 – Alexanders Department store closes all 11 stores1992 – Billy Joel got his high school diploma. He had overslept and missed English and Gym finals 25 years before.1993 – Kim Campbell took office as Canada’s first woman prime minister. She assumed power upon the resignation of Brian Mulroney.1993 – Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action is adopted by World Conference on Human Rights.1994 – 105 degrees F (40.5 degrees C) at Albuquerque, New Mexico1994 – 111 degrees F (43.9 degrees C) at El Paso, Texas1995 – Pearl Jam canceled their tour because of an ongoing feud with Ticketmaster.1995 – Warren E. Burger, the 15th chief justice of the United States, died at age 87.1996 – A truck bomb killed 19 Americans and injured hundreds at a U.S. military housing complex in Saudi Arabia.1997 – Christies auctions off Princess Di’s clothing for $5.5 million1997 – Death of Jacques Cousteau, French oceanographer and explorer (b. 1910)1997 – Galileo, 2nd Callisto Flyby, Orbit 91997 – Intelsat 802 Ariane 4 Launch, Successful1997 – Jamaica issues a warrant for singer Sade, who fails to report to court on charges of failure to obey a cop who signaled her to stop1997 – The Russian space station Mir was hit by an unmanned cargo vessel. Much of the power supply was knocked out and the station’s Spektr module was severely damaged.1997 – U.S. air pollution standards were significantly tightened by U.S. President Clinton.1998 – Microsoft’s “Windows 98” was released to the public.1998 – Supreme Court rules attorney-client privilege extends beyond the grave, exempting Vince Foster’s conversations with his lawyers from being used as evidence by Kenneth Starr1998 – The U.S. Supreme Court rejected the line-item veto thereby striking down presidential power to cancel specific items in tax and spending legislation.1998 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that those infected with HIV are protected by the Americans With Disabilities Act.2000 – A Florida judge approved a class-action lawsuit to be filed against American Online (AOL) on behalf of hourly subscribers who were forced to view “pop-up” advertisements.2000 – U.S. and British researchers announced that they had completed a rough draft of a map of the genetic makeup of human beings. The project was 10 years old at the time of the announcement.2003 – The Recording Industry Association of America disclosed its plans to fight Internet piracy. The plan was to sue hundreds of individual computer users who illegally share music files online. The process was planned to begin the next day.2004 – Eric Clapton raised about $7.5 million for a drug addiction center he set up in the Caribbean. The items that were sold were the “Blackie” Stratocaster that Clapton played from 1970-185 for $1 million, a 1964 cherry-red Gibson for $847,000 and a 1939 Martin accoustic that Clapton played on his “Unplugged” album went for $800,000. All three sales were records for a guitar sale, a Gibson guitar and a Martin guitar respectively.2006 – Warren Buffett donates $30 billion to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation2009 – Death of Farrah Fawcett, American actress (b. 1947)2009 – Death of Michael Jackson, American singer-songwriter, producer, dancer, and actor (The Jackson 5) (b. 1958) Michael Jackson died at age 50 from an overdose of the powerful anesthetic propofol. (The singer’s doctor, Conrad Murray, was convicted of involuntary manslaughter.)2009 – Internet traffic reaches unprecedented levels after entertainer Michael Jackson’s death triggers an outpouring of worldwide grief2011 – According to a new study, the number of adults in the world with diabetes has doubled since 19802011 – New York becomes the largest state to legalize same-sex marriage when Governor Andrew Cuomo signs the New York State Marriage Equality Law2011 – Death of Martin H. Greenberg, American editor2012 – The U.S. Supreme Court rules that minors cannot be automatically be sentenced to life imprisonment without parole2013 – A portion of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which protects minority voting rights, is struck down by the U.S. Supreme Court, ruling that Congress has not taken into account the nation’s racial progress when singling out certain states for federal oversight2013 – The Shenzhou 10 spacecraft returns to Earth after China’s crew completes its 15-day mission, completing the country’s fifth manned spaceflight

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