TODAY June 16 – Sunni’s History Notes

Holidays and observances 
  • Bloomsday (Dublin, James Joyce fans)
  • International Day of the African Child
  • Martyrdom of Guru Arjan Dev (Sikhism)
  • Sussex Day (Sussex)
  • Youth Day (South Africa)
    363 – Emperor Julian marches back up the Tigris and burns his fleet of supply ships. During the withdrawal Roman forces suffering several attacks from the Persians. 455 – Rome was sacked by the Vandal army. 632 – Yazdegerd III ascends to the throne as king (shah) of the Persian Empire. He becomes the last ruler of the Sasanian dynasty (modern Iran). 1567 – Mary, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned in Lochleven Castle in Scotland. 1586 – Mary, Queen of Scots, recognizes Philip II of Spain as her heir and successor. 1713 – Birth of Meshech Weare, American farmer, lawyer, and politician, 1st Governor of New Hampshire (d. 1786) 1779 – Spain declares war on the Kingdom of Great Britain, and the Great Siege of Gibraltar begins. 1812 – The City Bank of New York (later Citibank) opened for business. 
Deutsch: Lord Byron, britischer Poet
Deutsch: Lord Byron, britischer Poet (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
1816 – Lord Byron reads Fantasmagoriana to his four house guests at the Villa Diodati, Percy Shelley, Mary Shelley, Claire Clairmont, and John Polidori, and inspires his challenge that each guest write a ghost story, which culminated in Mary Shelley writing the novel Frankenstein, John Polidori writing the short story The Vampyre, and Byron writing the poem Darkness. 
Geronimo (Goyaa?é), a Chiricahua Apache; kneel...
Geronimo (Goyaa?é), a Chiricahua Apache; kneeling with rifle, 1887. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
1829 – Birth of Geronimo, American Apache tribal leader (d. 1909) 1846 – The Papal conclave of 1846 concludes. Pope Pius IX is elected Pope beginning the longest reign in the history of the papacy. 1858 – Abraham Lincoln delivers his House Divided speech in Springfield, Illinois. U.S. Senate candidate Abraham Lincoln said the slavery issue had to be resolved. He declared, “A house divided against itself cannot stand.” 1871 – The University Tests Act allows students to enter the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Durham without religious tests (except for those intending to study theology). 1881 – Death of Marie Laveau, American voodoo practitioner (b. 1801)
New Orleans - Iberville: St. Louis Cemetery #1...
New Orleans – Iberville: St. Louis Cemetery #1 – Marie Laveau’s tomb (Photo credit: wallyg)
1883 – The New York Giants baseball team admitted all ladies for free to the ballpark. It was the first Ladies Day. 1883 – The Victoria Hall theatre panic in Sunderland, England kills 183 children. 1884 – At Coney Island, in Brooklyn, NY, the first roller coaster in America, LaMarcus Adna Thompson’s “Switchback Railway”, opened. 1890 – Birth of Stan Laurel, English-American actor, singer, director, and screenwriter (d. 1965) Stan Laurel of the comedy team Laurel and Hardy was born Arthur Stanley Jefferson in Lancashire, England. 1890 – The second Madison Square Gardens opened. 1896 – Birth of Murray Leinster, American author (d. 1976) 1897 – A treaty annexing the Republic of Hawaii to the United States is signed; the Republic would not be dissolved until a year later. 1903 – Ford Motor Company was incorporated. 1903 – Roald Amundsen commences the first east-west navigation of the Northwest Passage, leaving Oslo, Norway. 1904 – Irish author James Joyce begins a relationship with Nora Barnacle and subsequently uses the date to set the actions for his novel Ulysses; this date is now traditionally called “Bloomsday”.The main character of the book was Leopold Bloom. 1909 – Glenn Hammond Curtiss sold his first airplane, the “Gold Bug” to the New York Aeronautical Society for $5,000. 1911 – A 772 gram stony meteorite strikes the earth near Kilbourn, Wisconsin damaging a barn. 1922 – Henry Berliner accomplished the first helicopter flight at College Park, MD. 1925 – Birth of Otto Muehl, Austrian painter (d. 2013) 1930 – Death of Elmer Ambrose Sperry, American inventor, co-invented the gyrocompass (b. 1860) 1930 – Death of Ezra Fitch, American lawyer and businessman, co-founded Abercrombie & Fitch (b. 1866) 
Joyce Carol Oates at USF
Joyce Carol Oates at USF (Photo credit: shawncalhoun)
1938 – Birth of Joyce Carol Oates, American author 1940 – Birth of Neil Goldschmidt, American lawyer and politician, 33rd Governor of Oregon 1941 – Birth of Lamont Dozier, American songwriter and producer. Write hits like “Heatwave”, “Nowhere to Run”, “You Keep Me Hangin’ On”. 1941 – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered the closure of all German consulates in the United States. The deadline was set as July 10. 1942 – Birth of Eddie Levert, American singer-songwriter and producer (The O’Jays) 1944 – At age 14, George Junius Stinney, Jr. becomes the youngest person executed in the United States in the 20th century. 1949 – Birth of Ralph Hoversten, car enthusiast. 1950 – Birth of James Smith, musician (The Stylistics) 1951 – Birth of Charlie Dominici, American singer and guitarist (Dream Theater and Dominici) 1952 – “Anne Frank: Diary of a Young Girl” was published in the United States. 1952 – Birth of Gino Vannelli, Canadian singer-songwriter 1953 – Birth of Ian Mosley, English drummer (Marillion) 1955 – Birth of Laurie Metcalf, American actress 1955 – In a futile effort to topple President Juan Perón, rogue aircraft pilots of the Argentine Navy drop several bombs upon an unarmed crowd demonstrating in favor of Perón in Buenos Aires, killing 364 and injuring at least 800. At the same time on the ground, some forces soldiers attempt to stage a coup but are suppressed by loyal forces. 1955 – Pope Pius XII excommunicated Argentine President Juan Peron. The ban was lifted eight years later. 1955 – The U.S. House of Representatives voted to extend Selective Service until 1959. 
Psycho (Photo credit: alvaro tapia hidalgo)
1960 – “Psycho,” directed by Alfred Hitchcock, premiered in New York. 1961 – Rudolf Nureyev defected from the Soviet Union while in Paris, traveling with the Leningrad Kirov Ballet. 1962 – Birth of Femi Kuti, English-Nigerian singer-songwriter and saxophonist 1963 – 26-year-old Valentina Tereshkova went into orbit aboard the Vostok 6 spacecraft for three days. She was the first female space traveler. 1963 – Birth of Scott Alexander, American screenwriter and producer 1967 – The Monterey Pop Festival began at the Monterey Fairgrounds in Northern California. The festival lasted three days. 1967 – The Monterey Pop Festival begins 1967 – The three-day Monterey International Pop Music Festival – which catapulted Jimi Hendrix, the Who and Janis Joplin to stardom – opened in northern California. 1970 – Woodstock Ventures, the sponsors of the original Woodstock, announced that they lost more than $1.2 million on the festival. 1971 – Birth of Tupac Shakur, American rapper, producer, and actor (Digital Underground, Outlawz, and Thug Life) (d. 1996) 1972 – The largest single-site hydroelectric power project in Canada is inaugurated at Churchill Falls Generating Station. 1972 – The New York Jazz Museum opened. 1975 – John Lennon sued the U.S. government, he charged that officials tried to deny his immigration through selective prosecution. 1976 – Birth of Cian Ciaran, Welsh keyboard player (Super Furry Animals) 1976 – In Soweto, thousands of school children revolted against the South African government’s plan to enforce Afrikaans as the language for instruction in black schools. the non-violent march by 15,000 students turns into days of rioting when police open fire on the crowd. 1976 – The TV show “The Jacksons” began airing for four weeks on CBS. 1977 – Beatlemania opened on Broadway. 1977 – Leonid Brezhnev was named the first Soviet president of the USSR. He was the first person to hold the post of president and Communist Party General Secretary. He replaced Nikolai Podgorny. 1977 – Oracle Corporation is incorporated in Redwood Shores, California, as Software Development Laboratories (SDL) by Larry Ellison, Bob Miner and Ed Oates. 1978 – The film adaptation of “Grease” premiered in New York City. 1980 – The movie “The Blues Brothers” opened in Chicago, IL. 1981 – The “Chicago Tribune” purchased the Chicago Cubs baseball team from the P.K. Wrigley Chewing Gum Company for $20.5 million. 1981 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan awards the Congressional Gold Medal to Ken Taylor, Canada’s former ambassador to Iran, for helping six Americans escape from Iran during the hostage crisis of 1979-81; he is the first foreign citizen bestowed the honor. 1982 – Death of James Honeyman-Scott, English guitarist and songwriter (The Pretenders) (b. 1956) He died of drug overdose at the age of 25. 1983 – Yuri Andropov was elected chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet. The position was the equivalent of president. 1985 – Willie Banks broke the world record for the triple jump with a leap of 58 feet, 11-1/2 inches in the U.S.A. championships in Indianapolis, IN. 1987 – A jury in New York acquitted Bernhard Goetz of attempted murder in the subway shooting of four young blacks he said were going to rob him; he was convicted of illegal weapons possession. 1992 – Sister Souljah called future U.S. President Bill Clinton a “draft dodging, pot smoking womanizer.” Clinton had criticized Sister Souljah on June 13, 1992. 1992 – U.S. President George H.W. Bush welcomed Russian President Boris Yeltsin to a meeting in Washington, DC. The two agreed in principle to reduce strategic weapon arsenals by about two-thirds by the year 2003. 1995 – Pearl Jam began a tour without using Ticketmaster. They chose to use a mail order ticket service. 1996 – Russian voters had their first independent presidential election. Boris Yeltsin was the winner after a run-off. 1998 – Sunhawk Corp. signed a multiyear agreement with Warner Bros. Publications to sell Warner-owned sheet music via the internet the Sunhawk Website. 1999 – Phil Collins received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. 1999 – The U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals said that a 1992 federal music piracy law does not prohibit a palm-sized device that can download high-quality digital music files from the Internet and play them at home. 2000 – Israel complies with United Nations Security Council Resolution 425 22 years after its issuance, which calls on Israel to completely withdraw from Lebanon. Israel does so, except the disputed Shebaa farms. 2000 – U.S. federal regulators approved the merger of Bell Atlantic and GTE Corp. The merger created the nation’s largest local phone company. 2000 – U.S. Secretary of Energy Bill Richardson reported that an employee at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico had discovered that two computer hard drives were missing. 2004 – Scotland’s University of St. Andrews announced that it would make Bob Dylan an honorary doctor of music at its June 23 summer graduation ceremony. 2008 – California began issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples. 2010 – Bhutan becomes the first country to institute a total ban on tobacco. 2011 – Rep. Anthony Weiner, D-N.Y., announced his resignation from Congress, bowing to the furor caused by his sexually charged online dalliances with a former porn actress and other women. 2012 – China successfully launches its Shenzhou 9 spacecraft, carrying three astronauts – including the first female Chinese astronaut, Liu Yang – to the Tiangong-1 orbital module. 2012 – The United States Air Force’s robotic Boeing X-37B spaceplane returns to Earth after a classified 469-day orbital mission. ???? – Birth of Marylin Simpson, photographer and writer. ???? – Birth of Diane “Librarians Rock” Kachmar ???? – Birth of Pankaj Lakhina, developer developer developer. ???? – Birth of Peggy Wheeler, American author.  

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