40 – Birth of Gnaeus Julius Agricola, Roman general (d. 93)313 – The Edict of Milan, signed by Constantine the Great and co-emperor Valerius Licinius granting religious freedom throughout the Roman Empire, is posted in Nicomedia.823 – Birth of Charles the Bald, Roman emperor (d. 877)839 – Birth of Charles the Fat, Roman emperor (d. 888)1373 – Anglo-Portuguese Alliance between England (succeeded by the United Kingdom) and Portugal is the oldest alliance in the world which is still in force.1381 – The Peasants Revolt led by Wat Tyler culminated in the burning of the Savoy Palace.1415 – Henry the Navigator, the prince of Portugal, embarked on an expedition to Africa.1525 – Martin Luther marries Katharina von Bora, against the celibacy rule decreed by the Roman Catholic Church for priests and nuns.1595 – Birth of Jan Marek Marci, Bohemian doctor and scientist (d. 1667)1625 – King Charles I of England marries Henrietta Maria of France, Princess of France1774 – Rhode Island becomes the first of Britain’s North American colonies to ban the importation of slaves.1777 – American Revolutionary War: Marquis de Lafayette lands near Charleston, South Carolina, in order to help the Continental Congress to train its army.1789 – Ice cream was served to General George Washington by Mrs. Alexander Hamilton.1805 – Lewis and Clark Expedition: scouting ahead of the expedition, Meriwether Lewis and four companions sight the Great Falls of the Missouri River.1825 – Walter Hunt patented the safety pin. Hunt then then sold the rights for $400.1827 – Birth of Alberto Henschel, German-Brazilian photographer and businessman (d. 1882)1865 – Birth of W. B. Yeats, Irish poet, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1939)1866 – The 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was passed by the U.S. Congress. It was ratified on July 9, 1868. The amendment was designed to grant citizenship to and protect the civil liberties of recently freed slaves. It did this by prohibiting states from denying or abridging the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States, depriving any person of his life, liberty, or property without due process of law, or denying to any person within their jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.1884 – Birth of Gerald Gardner, English religious leader, founded Gardnerian Wicca (d. 1964)1886 – A fire devastates much of Vancouver, British Columbia.1886 – King Ludwig II of Bavaria is found dead in Lake Starnberg south of Munich at 11:30 PM.1888 – The U.S. Congress created the Department of Labor.1893 – Grover Cleveland notices a rough spot in his mouth and on July 1 undergoes secret, successful surgery to remove a large, cancerous portion of his jaw; the operation was not revealed to the public until 1917, nine years after the president’s death.1898 – The Canadian Yukon Territory was formed, with Dawson chosen as its capital.1899 – Birth of Carlos Chávez, Mexican composer, conductor, and journalist, founded the Mexican Symphonic Orchestra (d. 1978)1900 – China’s Boxer Rebellion against foreigners and Chinese Christians erupted into violence.1912 – Captain Albert Berry made the first successful parachute jump from an airplane in Jefferson, Mississippi.1917 – World War I: The deadliest German air raid on London during World War I is carried out by Gotha G bombers and results in 162 deaths, including 46 children, and 432 injuries.1920 – The U.S. Post Office Department ruled that children may not be sent by parcel post.1922 – Charlie Osborne started the longest attack on hiccups. He hiccuped over 435 million times before stopping. He died in 1991, 11 months after his hiccups ended.1926 – Birth of Paul Lynde, American actor and singer (d. 1982)1927 – Aviator Charles Lindbergh receives a ticker-tape parade down 5th Avenue in New York City.1927 – For the first time, an American Flag was displayed from the right hand of the Statue of Liberty.1929 – Birth of Ralph McQuarrie, American artist, known for designing many elements of the Star Wars films (d. 2012)1940 – Paris was evacuated before the German advance on the city.1943 – Birth of Malcolm McDowell, English actor1943 – German spies landed on Long Island, New York. They were soon captured.1944 – Marvin Camras patented the wire recorder.1945 – Birth of Whitley Strieber, American author1949 – Birth of Dennis Locorriere, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (Dr. Hook & The Medicine Show)1949 – Bao Dai entered Saigon to rule Vietnam. He had been installed by the French.1953 – Birth of Tim Allen, American actor and producer1958 – Frank Zappa graduated from Antelope Valley High in Lancaster, CA.1958 – Birth of Algie Lane1962 – Birth of Ally Sheedy, American actress and author1964 – The Rolling Stones made a television appearance on “Hollywood Palace.” The was show hosted by Dean Martin.1966 – The landmark “Miranda vs. Arizona” decision was issued by the U.S. Supreme Court. The decision ruled that criminal suspects had to be informed of their constitutional rights before being questioned by police.1967 – Solicitor General Thurgood Marshall was nominated by President Lyndon B. Johnson to become the first black justice on the U.S. Supreme Court.1969 – Governor of Texas Preston Smith signs a bill into law converting the former Southwest Center for Advanced Studies, originally founded as a research arm of Texas Instruments, into the University of Texas at Dallas.1969 – Mick Taylor joined The Rolling Stones as Brian Jones’ replacement.1969 – Birth of Traci Luginbill LaRosa, fitness guru.1970 – Birth of Rivers Cuomo, American singer-songwriter and guitarist (Weezer, Avant Garde, and Homie)1970 – “The Long and Winding Road” becomes The Beatles’ last U.S. number one song.1970 – Christine McVie released a solo album and then announced her retirement from music. She later came out of retirement.1971 – The New York Times began publishing the “Pentagon Papers”. The articles were a secret study of America’s involvement in Vietnam.1975 – John Lennon made his last TV appearance to sing “Imagine.”1977 – Convicted Martin Luther King Jr. assassin James Earl Ray is recaptured after escaping from prison three days before.1978 – Israelis withdrew the last of their invading forces from Lebanon.1979 – Sioux Indians were awarded $105 million in compensation for the U.S. seizure in 1877 of their Black Hills in South Dakota.1981 – At the Trooping the Colour ceremony in London, a teenager, Marcus Sarjeant, fires six blank shots at Queen Elizabeth II.1982 – Riccardo Paletti, was killed when he crashed on the start grid for the Canadian Grand Prix1983 – Pioneer 10 becomes the first man-made object to leave the central Solar System when it passes beyond the orbit of Neptune (the furthest planet from the Sun at the time).1984 – The Jacksons’ “State of Shock,” was released. Mick Jagger did guest vocals.1986 – Birth of Ashley Olsen, American actress, singer, producer, and fashion designer1986 – Birth of Mary-Kate Olsen, American actress, singer, producer, and fashion designer1986 – Death of Benny Goodman, American clarinet player, songwriter, and bandleader (b. 1909)1988 – The Liggett Group, a cigarette manufacturer, was found liable for a lung-cancer death. They were, however, found innocent by the federal jury of misrepresenting the risks of smoking.1989 – Jerry Lee Lewis got a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.1989 – U.S. President George H.W. Bush exercised his first Presidential veto on a bill dealing with minimum wage.1992 – Future U.S. President Bill Clinton criticized Sister Souljah for making remarks “filled with hatred” towards whites.1992 – Law enforcement officials in Texas called for a ban on Ice-T’s “Cop Killer” album.1994 – A jury in Anchorage, Alaska, blamed recklessness by Exxon Corp. and Capt. Joseph Hazelwood for the Exxon Valdez disaster, allowing victims of the nation’s worst oil spill to seek $15 billion in damages.1995 – Alanis Morissette released the album “Jagged Little Pill.”1997 – A jury voted unanimously to give Timothy McVeigh the death penalty for his role in the Oklahoma City bombing.2000 – In Pyongyang, North Korea’s leader Kim Jong Il welcomed South Korea’s President Kim Dae for a three-day summit. It was the first such meeting between the leaders of North and South Korea.2000 – Italy pardons Mehmet Ali Agca, the Turkish gunman who tried to kill Pope John Paul II in 1981.2002 – Two 14-year-old South Korean girls are struck and killed by a United States Army armored vehicle, leading to months of public protests against the U.S.2005 – A jury in Santa Maria, California acquits pop singer Michael Jackson of molesting 13-year-old Gavin Arvizo at his Neverland Ranch.2009 – Incumbent Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was declared the winner of a disputed Iranian presidential vote, touching off weeks of mass demonstrations.2010 – Death of Jimmy Dean, American singer, actor, and businessman, founded Jimmy Dean Foods (b. 1928)2010 – A capsule of the Japanese spacecraft Hayabusa, containing particles of the asteroid 25143 Itokawa, returns to Earth.2014 – A full moon coincided with Friday the 13th. The next such coincidence will not occur until 2049.???? – Birth of John Palisano, American author and screenwriter.